Recent Changes

Tuesday, April 22

  1. page Question 2 edited ... Examining all of the material we have discussed in this course, identify at least three (3) ar…
    Examining all of the material we have discussed in this course, identify at least three (3) areas where you have been able to shine a personal light (e.g,. work and recreation, gender role/identity development, stress management, relationships, etc.). Especially focus on those “aha!” moments which you may have experienced during this course. That is, in reflecting on the course material, identify three personal areas of growth and share your journey. Frame your essay in the language of our text and consider recent research.
    For all sections, please be sure to include relevant and correctly formatted citations.
    I. MATERIAL FROM TEXTBOOK (Organized By Chapter)
    Chapter 1: Personal growth and Learning
    We have the ability to make choices and the power to recreate ourselves.
    To make changes in your life, you need to assess where you are now, whether you are satisfied and getting what you want
    Paradoxical Theory of Change : Personal change tends to occur when we become aware of what we are as opposed to trying to become what we are not (Corey & Corey, 2010, pg 6).
    Maslow's Self-Actualization Theory, hierarchy of needs (people motivated by these needs at same time):
    Most basic needs are physiological: food, water, shelter, air.
    Safety needs next: protection from threat, fear, anxiety
    Love needs next: acceptance, belonging, love
    Ego and esteem needs: respect, liking self and others, competence, creativity, freedom
    emotional intelligence: ability to control impulses, empathize with others, form relationships
    Being an active learner: assume repsponsibility for your education, you question what is presented to you, and you apply what yo learn personally and in a meaningful way. What do you want out of college or life in general?(Corey & Corey, pg. 26).
    Chapter 2: Childhood & Adolescence
    autonomy: psychological emancipation; refers to mature independence and interdependence
    psychosocial theory: focuses on emergence of self and ways in which self develops through our interactions with our social and cultural environment; integration of biological, psychological, and social aspects of development; Erikson
    Early childhood: 3-6; must learn independence, personal power, coping with impulsive and aggressive reactions and behavior; autonomy v. shame/doubt; initiative v. guilt
    Developing a self-concept: "refers to your awareness about yourself. It is your picture of yourself that includes your perceptions about the kind of person you are; your view of your worth, value, and possibilities; the way you see yourself in relation to others; the way you ideally would like to be; and the degree to which you accept yourself as you are" (Corey & Corey, 2010, p.57).
    Self-concept is influenced by your experiences in school including contact with your peer group, teachers, family, and by your cultural context
    The influences that occur during the first 6 years of life and their affect on the rest of life
    Many of the events which occur during the first 6 years of a child’s development have a profound impact on both the present and the future. “If you reached faulty conclusions based on your early life experiences, you may still be operating on the basis of them” (p. 53).
    “Authoritative parents establish high goals for their children, yet they are accepting and allow their children to explore while maintaining firm limits to help scaffold and structure their children’s environment” (p. 51).
    “Authoritative parenting tends to produce children with self-reliance, self-control, an ability to cope with stress, purposeful behavior, an achievement-orientation, a cooperative attitude, and a curiosity about life” (p. 52).
    Definition of autonomy: “If you are an autonomous person, you are able to function without constant approval and reassurance, are sensitive to the needs of others, can effectively meet the demands of daily living, are willing to ask for help when it is needed, and can provide support to others. In essence, you have the ability both to stand alone and to stand by another person” (p. 40).
    Chapter 3: Adulthood and Autonomy
    You can learn to engage in a dialogue with your self-defeating thoughts and beliefs and acquire a more positive and constructive set of beliefs.
    maturity: autonomy, entails you accept responsibility for consequences of your choices rather than hold others accountable
    rational emotive behavior therapy: based on premise that emotional and behavioral problems originally learned from significant others during childhood; actively keep false beliefs alive through repetition; faulty thinking creates emotional upsets and leads to misery; ABC theory of personality that reiterates self-defeating beliefs; you must challenge and change self-destructive beliefs
    mindfulness: involves becoming increasingly observant and aware of external and internal stimuli in present moment and adopting open attitude of accepting what is rather than judging present situation; you become fully present in the moment
    Ch.3:Adulthood and Autonomy:(Corey& Corey, 2010 p. 69-104)
    Autonomy or maturity entails that you accept responsibility for the consequences of your choices rather than holding others accountable if you are not satisfied with the way things are going.
    Maturity is not always equivalent to independence and self-sufficency.
    McGoldrick and Carter (2005) remind everyone that the ultimate goal is to develop a mature, interdependent self.
    Transactional Analysis helps us understand how our learning during childhood extends into childhood. It is a personality theory that is built on assumptions that adults make decisions based on past premises-premises that were at one time appropriate to their survival needs but may no longer be valid.
    Stages of adulthood
    Early adulthood (21-34)- engaguing in intimate relationships, sense of identity is tested against challenges. The challenge is to maintain separated while forming new attachments.
    Middle Adulthood (35-49)- “going outside oneself”. Reviewing/Reassessing and accepting choices made in life. A challenge is to recognize accomplishments and accept limitations. More aware of their eventual death and begin to question whether they are living well.
    Late middle age (50-64)- the beginning of the “wisdom” years. Key themes are helping others, leaving their legacy. Challenges include dealing with physical and intellectual decline.
    Late Adulthood (65+)- Final stage; major themes are loss, grief, resiliency, retrospection and growth. This is the time to find new meaning and appreciate what has been accomplished. Ego integrity is attached by those who have few regrets, who see themselves as living a productive like and have successfully coped with failure and success.
    All of the developmental stages that we go through are imperative in helping to determine attitudes, beliefs, values and actions regarding the important areas of our life like gender role identity, work, the body, love, sexuality, intimate relationships, loneliness and solitude, death and loss and meaning and values. Understanding how we first got here is crucial in the ability to move forward from here.
    Corey, G. & Schneider Corey, M. (2010). I Never Knew I Had a Choice: Explorations in Personal Growth (9th ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.
    Chapter 3: Adulthood and Autonomy
    -early adulthood encompasses many changes
    -early adulthood should be understood within the cultural context
    -There is a lot of agitation, excitement and change during this time
    -emerging adults will examine: love, work, and worldview
    Chapter 4: Body & Wellness
    wellness: lifestyle choice and involves lifelong process of taking care of our needs on all levels of functioning (physical, psychological, social, intellectual, spritiual); deliberate lifestyle choice characterized by personal responsibility and optimal enhancement of all levels of functioning; preventing illness; process of conscious choice and effort
    Sedentary living increases risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, colon cancer, high blood pressure, osteoporosis, depression, and anxiety.
    Exercise reduces negative effects of stress, prevents disease, enhances life, promotes restful sleep, improves bone density and nutrition, source of enjoyment; plan exercise program with care to minimize risks and maximize gains. Set a goal and reward yourself for sticking to a plan.
    Body expresses inner self, what we are experiencing and sensing. Swallowing emotions takes a physical toll on the body and manifests itself in physical symptoms; often direct relationship between physical problems and emotional problems.
    “Your spirituality can serve as a compass and a guide for the life choices you make.” (Corey & Corey pg. 119)
    6. Chapter 5: Managing Stress
    "Schwartz and Flowers (2008) capture the essence of living mindfully, 'When we are mindful, we are engaged in the present, not entangled in the past, not rejecting what is occurring. The result is that we are freer, more alive, more energized, more clearheaded' (p. 104)."
    Mindfulness attempts to keep us in the here and now, rather than living in the past or future.
    Learning to remember to live right now.
    Learning to be a human being instead of a human doing.
    Resilience in coping with stress
    Resilience—the capacity of individuals to bounce back from major stress events with minimal negative effects
    Hardiness—characterized by an appetite for challenge, a sense of commitment, a clearly defined sense of self and purpose and a clear sense of being in control of one’s life
    Hardiness is a key to resiliency
    Allows people to turn adversity into advantage
    Personality traits linked to hardiness:
    A liking for challenge
    A strong sense of commitment
    An internal locus of control
    A source of stress: change
    Examples: personal relationships, career, financial, moving,
    Relationship between stressful life events and physical illness
    A combined effect of numerous changes increases intensity of stress
    "The demands for adjustment to these life changes, along with your perceptions of these demands, are more important than the type of life changes alone" (p. 137).
    Burnout from continual stress
    Physical, emotional, intellectual, and spiritual exhaustion
    Often gave to others but forgot to give to self
    Need for self-care
    Learn better ways to structure life to prevent burnout
    Constructive coping strategies
    Confront problem directly
    What is reality?
    Identify disruptive emotional reactions
    Maintain self-control in stressful situations
    Ch. 5 Managing Stress (Corey & Corey, 2010 p.133-166)
    Although many sources of stress are external, how we perceive and react to stress is subjective and internal” (p. 135)
    “By interpreting the events in our lives, we define what is and is not stressful – we determine our level of stress” (p. 135)
    Sources of stress:
    Environmental stress- Illness, exposure to environmental pollutants, improper diet, lack of exercise, poor sleeping habits, and abusing our bodies in any number of other ways, living in crowded conditions, noise, traffic condition, and pollutions. Racism, oppression, and discrimination are major environmental stressors. Discrimination on the basis of race, age, gender or sexual orientation creates stress in many people’s life. Tragic events like 9/11 are also huge environmental stressors.
    Psychological stress-
    Frustration: a blocked attempt to attain your needs and goals.
    Conflict- occurs when two or more incompatible motivations or behavioral impulses compete for expression.
    i. Approach-approach conflicts- occur when a choice must be made between two or more attractive or desirable alternatives. Conflicts like this are inevitable because we have a limited amount of time to do all the things we would like to do. An example of this conflict would be choosing between two job offers that have attractive features
    ii. Avoidance-avoidance conflicts- arise when a choice must be made between two or more unattractive or undesirable outcomes. These conflicts are the most stressful and undesirable. An example would be choosing to be unemployed or a job that you find to be unpleasant.
    iii. Approach-avoidance conflicts- produced when a choice must be involving two or more linked outcomes, both of which have attractive and unattractive elements. An example would be offered a challenging job that is appealing but that entails much traveling which is considered to be a drawback.
    Change- can sometimes involve readjusting to our living circumstances. Regular life changes like getting married, changing careers, moving, beginning a family, and sometimes financial changes.
    Pressure- involves expectations and demands for behaving in certain ways. Continually placing internal pressure by being extremely demanding of ourselves and never feeling quite satisfied will create a lot of pressure. To relieve pressure consider the unrealistic or faulty beliefs you hold about perfection.
    Effects of stress-
    Fight-or-flight- the body’s constant alert status, ready for aggressive action to combat the many “enemies” can cause biochemical changes that may lead to chronic stress and anxiety.
    Psychosomatic illness- genuine physical maladies such as ulcers, hypertension, and asthma are caused and partially exacerbated by emotional factors and the prolonged effects of stress. They are real bodily discomforts that range from minor discomfort to life-threatening conditions.
    Stress contributes to 80% of all major physical illnesses, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, endocrine and metabolic diseases, skin rashes, ulcers, migraine and tension headaches.
    Constructive responses to stress-
    i. Confront the problem directly
    ii. Accurately and realistically appraise a stressful situation rather than distorting reality
    iii. Learn to recognize and manage potentially disruptive emotional reactions to stress
    iv. Learn to exert behavioral self-control in the face of stress
    Changing self-defeating thoughts and messages
    Acquiring a sense of humor
    Ways to manage stress
    Find ways to simplify life
    Become aware of the demands you place on yourself and others
    Do something each day that you enjoy
    Practice consciously doing one thing at a time
    When you feel stressed, take a few deep breaths
    Practice being kind to yourself and others
    Recognize and acknowledge your stressors.
    Time management
    Deep relaxation
    Therapeutic massage.
    “work smarter” by setting realistic goals Assume an objective perspective, rather than taking all problems encountered personally
    Pay attention to body signals and heed their warnings
    Monitor self-talk to identify beliefs that create stress
    Ask for help and don’t be afraid to delegate tasks to others when necessary
    Corey, G. & Schneider Corey, M. (2010). I Never Knew I Had a Choice: Explorations in Personal Growth (9th ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole
    Chapter 6: managing stress
    -resilience in coping with stress
    -a liking for the challenge: actively confront challenges
    -be committed to having high self esteem
    -strong internal locus of control
    Chapter 6: Love
    authentic love: enhances us and those we love; ingredients in a love-term love relationship: self-acceptance, acceptance by partner, appreciate of each other, effective communication, commitment, realistic expectations, common interests, collaborative decision making and ability to deal with conflict effectively; meaningful self-disclosure is essential; does not imply perfect state of happiness
    Love makes a difference: "To fully develop as a person and enjoy a meaningful exsistence, we need to care for others and have others care for us" (Corey&Corey, 2010, p.172).
    Intimacy and love are factors that can be directly linked to our overall health and well-being.
    Chapter 7: Relationships
    Forming intimate relationships is the major task of early adulthood. Being able to share significant aspects of yourself with others, understanding barriers to intimacy, and learning ways of enhancing intimacy can help you better understand the many different types of relationships in your life.
    7 principles for making marriage work: intimate familiarity, fondness & admiration, connectedness, shared sense of power, shared goals, and open communication
    Anger and conflict in relationships
    Anger is one of the most powerful emotions we can experience
    Passion is the driving force for life and also an impetus for anger
    Expressing anger constructively
    Maybe challenge some f the messages you received from your family of origin
    To be able to express anger there must be safety in the relationship that will enable you to share and deal with your feelings
    KEY: a sign of a healthy relationship is that people are able to express feelings and thoughts that may be difficult for the other to hear, but ht message is delivered in such a way that it does not assault the other person’s character
    Addressing conflict and confrontation effectively
    Recognize that conflict can be a healthy sign of individual differences and an integral part of good relationships
    See confrontation as a caring act, not an attack on the other person
    Resist the temptation to plan your next response while the other person is speaking to you
    If you do confront a person, identify your motivation
    Accept responsibility for your own feelings
    In confronting another, try not to make dogmatic statements about the other person
    Tell others how you are struggling with them
    Don’t walk away from conflict
    Chapter 8: Becoming the Person You Want to Be
    Behavior depends on prior experience, learned attitudes, cultural expectations, sanctions, opportunities for practice and situational demands.
    Dual-career couples often need to renegotiate the rules they grew up with and that governed the early phase of their relationship.
    gender-role transcendence: going beyond rigid categories of masculine and feminine to achieve a personal synthesis that allows for flexible behaviors in various situations; separates personality traits from biological sex
    Men’s roles
    What it means to trust other men
    How our relationship with parents and siblings affect our current relationships
    What it means to be a father
    How our bodies carry the weight of our unexpressed emotions and desires
    What it means to be a father
    How our bodies carry the weight of our unexpressed emotions and desires
    How we can decide for ourselves what it means to be a manGender stereotypes: widely accepted beliefs about females’ and males’ abilities, personality traits, and behavioral patterns- are common fare in American culture.
    Challenging traditional female roles:
    Women and work choices
    Women in dual-career families
    Usually face high expectations (from themselves)
    60% of women with children under 6 works outside the home.
    Dramatic increase of responsibilities unless husband is willing to share daily responsibilities
    Chronic fatigue
    Androgyny – “Androgynous individuals are able to adjust their behavior to what the situation requres in integrated and flexible ways. They are not bound by rigid, stereotyped behavior. Androgynous people have a wider range of capacities and can give expression to a richer range of behaviors than those who are entrapped by gender-typed expectations.” (Corey & Corey pg. 251)
    Chapter 10: Work & Recreation
    Balance we find btwn work and recreation can contribute to personal vitality or to a stressful experience that results in burnout
    recreation: means to restore, to refresh, to put new life into; involves leisure; what we do away from work
    Choosing a career path involves making an assessment of personal interests, needs, values, abilities and personal characteristics and occupational info
    Focusing on a particular occupation too soon is problematic b/c students' interests are not sufficiently reliable or stable to predict job success and satisfaction; in addition, most students do not know enough self-knowledge or knowledge of educational and vocational opportunities to make decisions
    Important factors in occupational decision-making process: motivation, achievement, attitude, ability, aptitude, interest, value, self-concept, temperament, personality, SES, parental influence, ethnicity, gender, disability
    Leisure is free time that we control and use for ourselves. Pause long enough to enjoy experiences.
    Chapter 11: Loneliness and Solitude
    The Value of Solitude (p.316-317)
    -being alone is part of the human experience
    -Loneliness: triggered by life events or major life decision
    -Solitude: something we choose, make time to be with ourselves, discovering who we are and renew ourselves, gain a sense of perspective
    -issue when we let our lives become to hectic and complicated, lose this
    -often make excuses to be alone because we feel uneasy about it
    Definition of solitude from the Dalai Lama: a mental state free of distractions, not simply time alone in a quiet place
    Fear of alienating others by seeking private time leads us to alienate ourselves
    Silence forces us to reflect and touch deep parts of ourselves
    The Experience of Loneliness (p. 318)
    -we can discover areas of strength and creativity within ourselves
    -Transient Loneliness: brief feelings when we have had satisfactory relationships in the past but are experiencing a disruption
    -Chronic Loneliness: unable to establish meaningful interpersonal relationships over a long time
    -Everyday Loneliness: pain of being isolate from other people (fear of intimacy)
    -Existential Loneliness: profound sense of an unbridgeable gap that separates us from others (getting older)
    Learning to Confront the Fear of Loneliness (p. 318-321)
    -surround ourselves with people to convince ourselves we are not lonely
    -pull back and don’t reach out to others in fear of rejection (needlessly lonely)
    -escaping facing yourself by staying busy
    -silence forces reflection and looking into the deeper parts of who we are
    "The world we live in surround us with entertainment and escapes, which makes it difficult to hear the voice within us” (Corey & Corey, 2010, p. 320)
    -In what ways have you escaped your loneliness, how can you get back in touch with yourself?
    Creating our own Loneliness through Shyness (p. 321-325)
    -Shyness: anxiety or excessive caution in interpersonal relationships
    -coping with shyness means becoming aware, examining and changing your thinking—get out of your comfort zone
    -what context is your shyness?
    -pay attention to your self-talk and the negative things you may say to yourself in certain situations
    -as young adults we question what to do with our lives, what intimate relationships to have and how to chart the future
    Time Alone as a Source of Strength (p. 335)
    -value that time alone, source of strength and foundation of your relatedness to others
    -time for yourself is a basic part of self-care, listen to yourself, and become sensitive to your experiences
    -solitude can provide appreciation for yourself and the time you have with others
    Corey, G. & Corey, M. S. (2010). I never knew I had a choice: Explorations in personal growth (9th ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning
    Chapter 12: Death and Loss
    Relational Model of death and grieving: "Moves away from the idea that we are born alone and die alone as individuals, instead emphasizing that people are born into networks of relationships and remain woven into those networks long after they die" (Corey & Corey, 2010, p.364).
    Peoples lives continue on in the stories told about them
    Involve people in our lives through: our conversations, choices we make, and our resources for living.
    Chapter 12: Death and Loss
    -awareness, understanding and acceptance of death can lay the groundwork for a meaningful life
    -what are our priorities and what do we value most
    -suffering is a part of life
    -Ellis: we choose our attitude, gives us the ability to cope
    “In what ways am I not as alive as I might be?” (Corey & Corey, 2010, p. 340)
    Our Fears of Death (p. 341)
    -Tuesdays with Morrie: “The truth is, once you learn how to die, you learn how to live” (Corey & Corey, 2010, p. 341)
    -be open with those we love
    Death and the Meaning of Life (p. 343-344)
    -those who have died can teach us a great deal about living life to the fullest
    -death often gives people the ability to instigate inner changes that help them to have a powerful focus on life
    *rather than let events happen to us we should actively create the kind of life we want
    -view life as an opportunity
    -awareness of death can produce positive change in a person’s life
    Freedom in Dying (p. 354)
    -sometimes we forget to simply take time to really experience and enjoy the simple things in life
    Allowing Yourself to Grieve (p. 361-362)
    -unresolved grief can cause many problems in life
    -mourning: formal practices of an individual or community in response to a death, therapeutic value as well working through grief emotionally and intellectually
    -make sure to not deny feelings and reality
    -Worden (2002) proposes four tasks of mourning
    1. accept the reality of the loss
    2. work through the pain of grief
    3. adjust to an environment in which the deceased is missing
    4. emotionally relocate the deceased and move on with life
    Being “Dead” Psychologically and Socially (p. 365-368)
    -to feel alive we must release what is dead within us and mourn those lost parts of self
    *Are you Alive to Your Senses and Your Body?
    -stop and notice details of your surroundings
    -learn the art of mindful living, savor the present moment
    *Can You be Spontaneous and Playful?
    -humor promotes new perspectives
    -what inner messages are blocking your ability to let go
    *Do You Listen to Your Feelings?
    -sometimes decide that feeling involves the risk of pain
    -closing ourselves to lows may include closing ourselves to highs
    *Are Your Relationships Alive?
    -easy to become set in a routine with another person
    -no surprise or spontaneity, are you being energized?
    *Are You Alive Intellectually and Spiritually?
    -applying knowledge gained to your own life and personal development
    -what does it mean for you? How are you spiritual in your daily life?
    -belonging to a religious group or contemplating the beauty of the natural world
    *How Well Are You Living?
    Corey, G. & Corey, M. S. (2010). I never knew I had a choice: Explorations in personal growth (9th ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning
    Chapter 13: Values and Meaning
    1. Logotherapy or the idea that people try to find their purpose while they are on earth and having the ability to choose how we act on the situation that is given
    2. Values that may change as we grow but influence our beliefs and eventually our actions
    3. Philosophy of life allows for a person to self-govern and feel empowered
    4. Ruiz's four assumptions: be impeccable with your word, don't take anything personal, don't make assumptions and always do your best (p. 380/381)
    Corey, G. & Corey, M. S. (2010). I never knew I had a choice: Explorations in personal growth (9th ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning
    Chapter 12: Death and loss:
    " Exestentialists view the acceptance of death is vital to the discovery of meaning and pupose in life. One of our distinguishing characterisitics as human beings is our ability to grasp the concept of the future, and thus, the inevitability of death. This ability gives meaning to our existance, for it makes our every moment count. "
    Armstrong states that, " people in our lives who are dying or have died can teach us a great deal about the value of living. They remind us to live each moment as fully as possible" ( Corey & Corey, pg. 343).
    Ch. 13: Meaning and Values
    Don Miguel Ruiz’s “four agreements”:
    1. Be impeccable with your word. Say what you mean and speak with integrity.
    2. Don’t take anything personally. Realize that what others says and do is often based on their subjective view of reality. If you can separate yourself from the opinions and actions of others, you can spare yourself needless suffering.
    3. Don’t make assumptions. Find the courage to express what you really want and communicate with others as clearly as you can to avoid misunderstandings.
    4. Always do your best. Realize that your best will change from moment to moment. By doing your best, you can avoid self-judgment and regret.
    (Corey & Corey, 2010, pg. 380-381)
    of article and
    annotations/summaries of article
    {The effect of attachment and sternberg's triangular theory of love on relationship satisfaction.pdf}
    Madey, S. F. & Rodgers, L. (2009). The effect of attachment and Sternberg's triangular theory of love on relationship satisfaction. Individual Differences Research, 7(2), 76-84.
    When one is asked to list important components of a healthy romantic relationship, intimacy, passion, and commitment intuitively come to mind.
    Intimacy, passion, and commitment are necessary elements toward attaining consummate, or complete love.
    Attachment predicts successful and unsuccessful relationships. Secure attachment is associated with greater trust and commitment
    Findings consistently report the link between attachment and variables such as intimacy, commitment, communication, coping, and disclosure.
    Close attachment represents emotional closeness in the relationship and comfort with being near the partner.
    Positive attachment styles such as secure attachment can lead to more pro-relationship behaviors, greater ability to establish intimacy, passion, and commitment in a relationship which in turn result in greater satisfaction in the relationship.
    More secure attachment predicts intimacy and commitment, which in turn predict greater relationship satisfaction.
    Intimacy, commitment, and passion increase feelings of connectedness and oneness with the partner.
    Abstract: We investigated the association between attachment and intimacy, passion, and commitment proposed in Sternberg’s Triangular Theory of Love on relationship satisfaction. Fifty-five university undergraduates who were in romantic relationships completed the Relationship Scales Questionnaire (Griffin & Bartholomew, 1994) and Sternberg’s Triangular Theory of Love Scale (Sternberg, 1988). Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that the association between secure attachment and relationship satisfaction is mediated by commitment and intimacy. However, when controlling for passion, secure attachment and passion each provided direct paths to relationship satisfaction. These findings are discussed in relation to the Triangular Theory of Love, and the function of attachment, caregiving, and sexual systems as these systems impact relationship satisfaction.
    Summary: Securely attached are more satisfied in their relationships due to intimacy and commitment.
    {John Hollands contributions A theory-ridden approach to career assistance.pdf}
    Gottfredson, G. D. & Johnstun, M. L. (2009). John Holland's contributions: a theory-ridden approach to career assistance. The Career Development Quarterly, 2009, 58, 99-107.
    Many influences on people's careers are outside of the scope of the P-E theory.
    A person's general psychological health, the influence of an abusive work environment, work overload, and geographical or other personal constraints influence satisfaction and other areas of vocational adjustment.
    Holland's ( 1997) theory of vocational personalities and work environments was developed to describe, understand, and predict the vocational choices people make, including fields of study, occupations and successive jobs, and other choices involving environments. The theory is also intended to account for the differential attraction of environments for certain kinds of people.
    A person tends to display the characteristics and pursue the values of the personality type he or she most resembles.
    A person's vocational identity refers to the clarity or focus of his or her vocational preferences, aspirations, and self-perceptions.
    Abstract: Holland influenced practice and research in career development by contributing a clear theory useful in organizing information about individuals and career alternatives and for understanding individuals' entry and persistence in occupational and other environments. His theory was repeatedly revised in response to evidence. As Holland's own career unfolded in a succession of organizational environments, he used the research opportunities these environments afforded to conduct large-sample tests of his ideas and assessment tools. J. L. Holland's (1970) Self-Directed Search is intended to be a career intervention, and Holland developed it and tested it as such. In outlining Holland's contributions to career counseling, a précis of his theory and some biographical context are provided.
    Summary: John Holland was/is highly influential due to his person-environment theory--must be congruence between person and job in order to be happy and successful.
    {Self-care and well-being in mental health professionals The mediating effects of self-awareness and mindfulness.pdf}
    Richards, K. C., Campenni, C. E., & Muse-Burke, J. L. (2010). Self-care and well-being in mental health professionals: The meditating effects of self-awareness and mindfulness. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 32(3), 247-264.
    Counselors have a responsibility to do no harm, benefit others, and pursue excellence in their profession.
    Mental health professionals are susceptible to impairment in their professional lives that can undermine their therapeutic efficacy.
    Therefore, to adhere to their ethical principles, it is important that counselors engage in self-care (e.g., exercise) to decrease the possibility of impairment and enhance their well-being.
    self-care: includes physical activity, psychological care (seeking one's own personal counseling), spirtiuality (sense of purpose and meaning of life), professional support from colleagues, personal support from family & friends
    Self-awareness is a state, a possible outcome of self-care.
    Mindfulness is maintaining awareness of and attention on one's surroundings; practice facilitates insight into one's self and one's motives.
    mindfulness-based stress reduction: meditating to understand self and self-regulation; noticing, accepting, and regulating emotions and thoughts
    Mindfulness has a strong link with self-awareness and well-being and self-care has a direct effect on self-awareness.
    When self-awareness increases, mindfulness increases.
    To receive the full benefits of well-being from perceiving self-care as important, one must achieve a state of mindfulness
    Abstract: Because mental health professionals are susceptible to impairment and burnout that may negatively affect clinical work, it is ethically imperative that they engage in self-care. Previous research has found
    direct effects of self-care on self-awareness and well-being (e.g.. Coster & Schwebet. ¡997). Likewise, mindfulness has been found to positively affect well-being (Brown & Ryan, 2003). However, no studies
    currently available demonstrate a link between self-awareness and well-being. Mindfulness may be the link needed to support this association. A survey of mental health professionals (N= ¡48) revealed that
    mindfulness is a significant mediator between self-care and well-being. Consequently, mental health professionals are encouraged to explore their involvement in and beliefs about self-care practice.
    Summary:Participating more often in self-care activities is significantly associated with their general well-being. Mindfulness/self-awareness also influences well-being, because when you're aware of something not quite right, you can make change.
    {Ubuntu Article.pdf}
    Gade, C. N. (2011). The Historical Development of the Written Discourses on Ubuntu. South African Journal Of Philosophy, 30(3), 303-329.
    Major points:
    Ubuntu is a common theme throughout sub-Saharan Africa
    Ubuntu roughly translates to "I am because we are."
    Ubuntu is a concept that creates an identity based on relationships within the community.
    5. {When Sarcasm Stings.pdf}
    Reference: Bowes, A., & Katz, A. (2011). When Sarcasm Stings. Discourse Processes, 48(4), 215-236. doi:10.1080/0163853X.2010.532757
    Abstract: The use of sarcasm sometimes lessens and sometimes enhances the negativity inherent in a sarcastic statement. Using a realistic conversational format, participants read either a sarcastic or a non-sarcastic aggressive argument between same-gendered interlocutors, and rated the pragmatic goals being expressed using a range of measures taken from previous studies. A factor analysis meaningfully grouped the dependent variables into separate factors, one of which indexed 'victimization' and a second of which indexed 'relational aggression.' The sarcastic version was perceived as more victimizing and more relationally aggressive, contrary to the muting hypothesis. Secondary analyses demonstrated that participants perceived the negative comment of the aggressor as more humorous and less aggressive when taking the perspective of the aggressor than when taking the perspective of the victim, and that male participants reported greater use of sarcasm in everyday life, but did not produce more when given the opportunity to do so.
    6. {Study of Non-traditional and traditional students.pdf}
    Non-traditional students have been returning to colleges and universities at a rapidly growing rate. This study investigated the stress factors and methods of coping of these non-traditional students during their university experience as compared to traditional students. A survey was conducted at a four-year southwestern state university that was projectable to the entire student population. Respondents were queried with regard to demographics, attitudes, behaviors and outcomes, such as grade point average, levels of stress and coping strategies in the college experience. The research indicates that non-traditional students bring different expectations for the college experience, were less involved in various college social activities and were less interested in "having a good time" in college than traditional students. Non-traditional students experienced differing levels of motivation, campus involvement, and participation in social activities from their traditional counterparts which related to time management issues and lead to differing levels of stress and methods of coping between the two groups of students.
    7. {Single by Chance, Mothers by Choice.pdf}
    Reference: Benjamin, O., & Nilsen, A. (2009). Two perspectives on Single by Chance, Mothers by Choice (2006) by Rosanna Hertz. Community, Work & Family, 12(1), 135-140. doi:10.1080/13668800802627942
    Abstract: The article presents two review essays from Ann Nilsen and Orly Benjamin regarding the book published by Rosanna Hertz entitled "Single by Chance, Mothers by Choice: How Women Are Choosing Parenthood Without Marriage and Creating the New American Family," which deals with women's empowerment, gendered aspects of parenting, and the politics of motherhood and fatherhood. Benjamin said that book talks about women's power to resist the myth of appropriate family life and create a family life for themselves and their children outside the normative environment of heterosexual families. Nilsen described the book as thoroughly researched in the social science that transcends the boundaries of common research topics of middle-class women who have opted for motherhood without a partner.
    8. {Mother-daughter Attachemnt.pdf}
    Reference: Kelley, M. L., French, A., Schroeder, V., Bountress, K., Fals-Stewart, W., Steer, K., & Cooke, C. G. (2008). Mother-Daughter and Father-Daughter Attachment of College Student ACOAs. Substance Use & Misuse, 43(11), 1562-1573.
    Abstract: This 2005 study compared parent-child attachment in 89 American female Adult Children of Alcoholics (ACOAs) as compared to 201 non-ACOAs. Women attended a large university in the southeastern United States. Participants categorized as ACOA on the Children of Alcoholics Screen Test (CAST; Jones, 1983) reported significantly more negative affect and less support from their fathers as indicated on the Parental Attachment Questionnaire (Kenney, 1987). When results were examined by the gender of the alcohol-abusing parent, participants who suspected their fathers were problem drinkers did not differ from non-ACOAs in their attachment to either parent. As compared to non-ACOAs, women who self-identified as daughters of problem-drinking mothers reported poorer attachment both to mothers and fathers.
    9. Relationship Maintenance Strategy Use by Romantic Attachment Style.
    Edenfield, J. L., Adams, K. S., & Briihl, D. S. (2012). Relationship maintenance strategy use
    by romantic attachment style. North American Journal Of Psychology, 14(1), 149-162.
    Abstract: This study investigated the relationship between adult romantic attachment style and relationship maintenance strategies of 101 postsecondary students. Instruments used included the Experiences in Close Relationships Inventory (Brennan, Clark, & Shaver, 1998) and the Relationship Maintenance Questionnaire (Canary & Stafford, 1992). Data were analyzed using one-way between subjects ANOVAs and bivariate correlations. Participants classified as fearful and dismissive used significantly less assurances, positivity, and openness. Consistent with previous research, avoidance, which is characteristic of both fearful and dismissive attachment styles, appears to be important in the use of emotionally expressive relationship maintenance strategies. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
    Summary: Article used adult romantic attachment style and relationship maintenance strategies. Showed that different participants with different attachment styles used various maintenance strategies in their relationships. For example, people who were classified as dismissive and fearful used less openness and positivity in their relationships. Each factor appears to be important in different maintenance strategies used in relationships.
    {Relationship Maintenance Strategy.pdf}
    10. The Relationship between Self-concept and Satisfaction with Life among Adolescents
    Ayub, N. (2010). The relationship between self-concept and satisfaction with life among
    adolescents. International Journal Of Interdisciplinary Social Sciences, 5(4), 81-92.
    Abstract: The objective of this investigation was to analyze the relationship between self-concept and satisfaction with life. Based on literature review, it was hypothesized that self-concept would be positively correlated on the variable of satisfaction with life among adolescent and additionally, it was assumed that there would be gender difference among adolescents on the variable of self-concept and satisfaction with life. A sample of 200 students (100 males and 100 females) was selected from different colleges of Karachi, Pakistan. The age of the participants ranged from 18-21 years (with mean age of 18.56 years). Their educational level was at least intermediate and socioeconomic status was middle and high class. The Six-Factor Self-Concept Scale (SFSCS; Stake, 1994) and Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWL; Diener, Emmons, Larsen & Griffin, 1985) were administered to assess satisfaction with life and self-concept of adolescents. In order to interpret the results Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficients was calculated to assess relationship between self-concept and the satisfaction with life. Furthermore, gender difference on the variable of self-concept and satisfaction with life was computed through t-test. A significant correlation was found between self-concept and satisfaction with life(r = 0.374; p<0.01, n=200). Results suggest that on the variable of self-concept gender difference was found (t=2.460, p <.05), and no gender difference was found (t= -.763, p >.05) on satisfaction with life. The result of the study supports the relationship between self-concept and satisfaction with life among adolescents and there is a gender difference on the variable of self-concept. Moreover, no gender difference was found on satisfaction with life. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
    Summary: The article examined the relationship between developing a self-concept and satisfaction in life among adolescents. It is important to develop a self-concept at an early age because it can truly describe the way you would like to be and the degree to which you accept yourself. It can lead more positive thinking about yourself and your relationships with others.
    {Self-Concept and Satisfaction with Life.pdf}
    Quality of Life Philosophy VI. The Concepts
    Søren Ventegodt, Niels Jorgan Anderson & Joav Merrick
    Abstract: The about a hundred central concepts related to research in the global quality of life can, in a holistic medical frame of interpretation, be organized under ten abstract key concepts: existence, creation of the world, state of being, daily living, talents, relations, sex, health, personal development, and therapy with subthemes as discussed in this paper.
    The paper shows that the concepts in each group can be seen as related to each other in a quite intuitive and logical way, to give a coherent quality of life philosophy that allows the physician to encourage, inspire, and support his patient. In every consultation, one new concept and idea of existence can be taught to the patient, helping him or her to realize the meaning of life, the source of joy, and the reason for the actual suffering. In this way, we help the patient to mobilize hidden and known resources and to improve quality of life, subjective health, and the ability to function. The concepts were harvested in 2003 at a Nordic seminar on quality of life research, held in Sweden.
    Life does not only cohere on the inside, but also on the outside. The same power that ties together all the cells in our body, seems to tie us together in relationships and new wholeness. This power evolves into new kinds of relations that unite on more and more complex levels, with the global ecosystem as the highest known level.
    Our intentions come from this coherent matrix of life. In the beginning of our life, the web of life itself gave birth to our fundamental purpose of life. The abstract purpose determines the frame of interpretation of reality: How we will perceive ourselves throughout life, our inner life, and the world around us. The frame of interpretation is pitched in language and concepts, in fact it creates our perceptions. Based on these perceptions and our purposes of life, our behavior arises. Our consciousness evolves through the witnessing of our behavior and through the response caused by it. Through the slowly acquired mastering of our surrounding world, we obtain our power, which gives us success in life, when we use it responsibly and unite it in harmony with our deepest purpose of life. When many people experience not having success, it is because they are not conscious about their original purpose or the deepest meaning of their lives. They do not know themselves. They do not experience the world in that way and do not realize that they themselves are the cause. Therefore responsibility and self-knowledge, which add up to wisdom, are the ways to a good and successful life.
    Summary: This academic journal provides multiple concepts about the philosophy of life and how people choose to interpret them. The journal tries to show people that they can create their own world no matter the concept that they face because they will always have choice. Some of the concepts discussed are daily living, states of being, talents, values and sex. There are also several other topics that are listed, however, they are put into tiers and different categories.
    Basic Individual Values, Work Values, and the Meaning of Work
    By: Maria Ros
    Abstract: A theory of basic individual values is presented and applied in studying work.
    Work goals or values are seen as expressions of basic values in the work setting. Basic values imply four types of work values-intrinsic, extrinsic, social, and prestige. These four types emerge in re-examinations of past research and in Study 1 of a representative Israeli sample (N
    999). Intercorrelations among these value types support theorising about the structure of work values. Study 2 explores the meaning of work as a vehicle for goal attainment. Spanish teachers (N
    193) and education students (N = 179) rated the importance of work and of a comprehensive set of basic values as guiding principles. For the teachers. work apparently serves to attain social stability and close social relations. For the students, work is associated with these goals and with promoting personal interests, independence, and excitement. In conclusion, we identify advantages of applying the theory of basic values to further studies of work.
    Summary: The idea of the research was to understand why people value certain things more than others and how their work values match their personalities and other choices they make throughout their daily life.
    {Self-Care Practices and Perceived Stress.pdf}
    Article for Chapter 5
    Myers, S. B., Sweeney, A. C., Popick, V., Wesley, K., Bordfield, A., & Fingerhut, R. (2012). Self-care practices and perceived stress levels among psychology graduate students. Training and Education in Professional Psychology, 6(1), 55-66.
    The authors of this article focus on the impact of stress among graduate students in a psychology program, as it is predicted that stress can negatively affect clinical practice and the overall training experience. High levels of stress were linked to poor physical health, emotional disturbances, and conflict among family members in a study conducted by the APA in 2010 (as cited in Myers, Sweeney, Popick, Wesley, Bordfield, & Fingerhut, 2012).
    There have been a number of studies on stress and medical students, many of which indicate the significant utilization of mental health services among this population. The authors state that this can be generalized to graduate students, as perceived stress levels are similar in both groups. Myers, et al. (2012) discuss the importance of promoting stress management throughout graduate training, as daily habits can increase or decrease the effects of stress.
    Sleep, exercise, emotional regulation, social support, and mindfulness are all factors that can affect stress levels. In this study, better sleep practices were related to lower levels of perceived stress, along with cognitive reappraisal and suppression (emotional regulation strategies). It did not find that more frequent engagement in formal mindfulness or exercise reduced stress, although these are common findings in empirical research. The authors note to keep in mind personality factors, individual differences, and type of stressor when assessing effects. Additionally, this study was limited due to a lack of diversity in the sample (Myers, Sweeney, Popick, Wesley, Bordfield, & Fingerhut, 2012).
    {When Professionals Become Mothers.pdf}
    Article for Chapter 8
    Cuddy, A. J. C., Susan, T. F., & Glick, P. (2004). When professionals become mothers, warmth doesn't cut the ice. Journal of Social Issues, 60(4), 601-718.
    This article addresses the issue of the “mommy track,” or the stereotype that says that moms cannot be serious professionals. The authors note the differentiation between non-traditional roles and traditional roles of women, contemplating the idea of whether or not this is a no-win situation. They compare two dimensions: warmth and competence, and discuss the stereotypes held in the United States. Female professionals without children, for example, are stereotyped as high on competence and low on warmth.
    In this study, women lost perceived competence and gained warmth when they became mothers, and participants suggested that they would be less interested in hiring, promoting, and educating the working mother in comparison to employees without children. The childless men and women were reported to be more competent and surprisingly, working dads did not lose perceived competence but gained warmth after gaining a child (Cuddy, Fiske, & Glick, 2004).
    These results shine the light on how stereotypes can affect the working mother in her professional career. Not only do women still experience discrimination in the work force, but they often face a significant decrease in self-esteem as a result of their experiences. This study was from 2004 so I would be interested to see if and how the results would change if the study was replicated.
    {being with people v. being alone-art for Q3.pdf}
    Article for Chapter 11
    1. Self Concept and Self Esteem in Adolescents
    Self concept and Self esteem in Adolescents
    The objective of this article was to offer suggestions for educators to help elevate self esteem and self concept in adolescents. They believe that the key is not in spending lots of money on expensive how to classes but rather to change the environment where the adolescents work. By changing the environment around them to be more supportive this will in turn create a more mattering community for the adolescents to model and gain confidence from.
    Summary: Self-concept and self-esteem are among the most widely discussed but misunderstood constructs in education. Most schools already address positive self-concept and self-esteem through their efforts to build students’ academic and social competencies and create environments in which students feel supported. The challenge is to reframe the understanding of self-concept so that adults are focusing on the right strategies to foster students’ sense of competence and self-worth.
    Manning, M. (n.d.). Self-concept and self-esteem in adolescents. NASP. Retrieved April 29, 2012, from
    2. A Meta-Analytic Review of Social, Self-Concept, and Behavioral Outcomes of Peer-Assisted Learning
    Meta-analysis was used to examine social, self-concept, and behavioral effects of peer-assisted learning (PAL) interventions with elementary school students. An electronic search of PsycINFO and ERIC databases resulted in 36 relevant PAL studies. Overall, effect sizes were small to moderate across the 3 outcome variable domains. Both social and self-concept outcomes were positively correlated with academic outcomes. Specific PAL components--student autonomy, individualized evaluation, structured student roles, interdependent group rewards, and same-gender grouping--were related to effect sizes. PAL interventions were more effective for low-income versus higher income, urban versus suburban-rural, minority versus nonminority, and Grades 1-3 students versus Grades 4-6 students. Results suggest that PAL interventions that focus on academics can also improve social and self-concept outcomes.
    Ginsburg-Block, M., Rohrbeck, C., & Fantuzzo, J. (2006). A Meta-Analytic Review of Social, Self-Concept, and Behavioral Outcomes of Peer-Assisted Learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98(4), 732-749.
    3. Gender Differences in Self-Conscious Emotional Experience: A Meta-Analysis:
    Else-Quest, N. M., Higgins, A., Allison, C., & Morton, L. C. (2012, April 2). Gender Differences in Self-Conscious Emotional Experience: A Meta-Analysis. Psychological Bulletin. Advanceonline publication. doi: 10.1037/a0027930
    The self-conscious emotions (SCE) of guilt, shame, pride, and embarrassment are moral emotions, which motivate adherence to social norms and personal standards and emerge in early childhood following the development of self-awareness. Gender stereotypes of emotion maintain that women experience more guilt, shame, and embarrassment but that men experience more pride. To estimate the magnitude of gender differences in SCE experience and to determine the circumstances under which these gender differences vary, we meta-analyzed 697 effect sizes representing 236,304 individual ratings of SCE states and traits from 382 journal articles, dissertations, and unpublished data sets. Guilt (d = −0.27) and shame (d = −0.29) displayed small gender differences, whereas embarrassment (d = −0.08), authentic pride (d = −0.01), and hubristic pride (d = 0.09) showed gender similarities. Similar to previous findings of ethnic variations in gender differences in other psychological variables, gender differences in shame and guilt were significant only for White samples or samples with unspecified ethnicity. We found larger gender gaps in shame with trait (vs. state) scales, and in guilt and shame with situation- and scenario-based (vs. adjective- and statement-based) items, consistent with predictions that such scales and items tend to tap into global, nonspecific assessments of the self and thus reflect self-stereotyping and gender role assimilative effects. Gender differences in SCE about domains such as the body, sex, and food or eating tended to be larger than gender differences in SCE about other domains. These findings contribute to the literature demonstrating that blanket stereotypes about women's greater emotionality are inaccurate. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract)
    Women are ubiquitously stereotyped as more emotional than men. This meta-analysis contributes to the evidence that some gender stereotypes of emotion are accurate but others are not. For example, the stereotype that women experience more guilt, shame, and, to some extent, embarrassment was substantiated by this meta-analysis, but gender stereotypes about pride appear groundless
    gender roles
    Article related to Personal Growth and Development
    Chapters 11, 12, 13, and 14
    Insight, Rumination and Self-Reflection
    Chapter 12
    Mindfulness and Counseling Self-Efficacy
    Chapter 11: Being alone
    Solitude and its Benefits
    Harrington, R. & Loffredo, D. (2011). Insight, rumination, and self-reflection as predictors of well-being. The Journal of Psychology, 145 (1), 39-57.
    Important Information
    -subjective well-being: refers to one’s cognitive and affective evaluations of life satisfaction
    -Psychological well-being: satisfaction of particular needs that lead to well-being such as autonomy, purpose in life
    -benefits of private self-focus, can it predict subjective or psychological well-being
    -private self-consciousness (focus on one’s own inner thoughts and feelings) is associated with greater level of self-understanding and being open to new experiences
    -internal self-awareness (ISA): maintain a general awareness of one’s feelings and mental processes –associated with greater well-being
    -insight was the most positive predictor for good well-being
    -rumination was the most powerful negative predictor of well-being
    -insight had a fairly good correlation with satisfaction of life
    -mindfulness meditation and practice—Buddhist teachings—is associated with increased well-being
    -works towards acceptance and nonjudgmental perspective on self and your inner experiences
    -reflection was conected to personal growth (which had also been found to be connected to openness to experience)
    - “The combination of the disposition to self-focus attention and self-acceptance is the optimal formula for high well-being. It is essentially an ‘I like my personality’ dispositional self-focused attention pattern. However, a disposition to self-focus attention where self-acceptance is neutral (a philosophical love of self-exploration) is essentially an ‘I’m open to change’ pattern that is naturally associated with personal growth.” (Harrington, R. & Loffredo, D., 2011, p. 52-53)
    Greason, P. & Cashwell, C. (2009). Mindfulness and counseling self-efficacy: The mediating role of attention and empathy. Counselor Education & Supervision, 49, 1-19.
    Important Information
    -mindfulness: paying attention in a particular way; on purpose, in the present moment, and non-judgmentally
    -intention, attention, attitude
    -need an attitude of openness and acceptance of experience
    -train to use these techniques in order to focus on the present moment and increase tolerance
    -mindfulness significantly predicted empathy
    -practicing mindfulness everyday helps to focus more within counseling sessions
    - “Mindfulness shifts orientation from a doing mode to a being mode because the attentional focus of mindfulness is on accepting and allowing rather than trying to change current experience” (Greason, P. & Cashwell, C., 2009, p. 14).
    Long, C. R., & Averill, J. R. (2003). Solitude: An exploration of benefits of being alone. Journal for the Theory of Social Behavior, 33(1), 21-44.
    Important Information
    -spiritual leaders experience solitude and then return to share what they have learned
    -relies on the human capacity to reflect upon and interpret one’s own experiences
    -often defined as loneliness but they are two separate things
    -solitude is a state in which you have more freedom to choose your own mental and physical activities
    -we spend 29% of our waking time alone as adults
    -what are the benefits to solitude
    -freedom of choice with actions and thoughts
    -creativity, facilitating it, more imagination and alternative identities (self-transformation)
    -facilitates self-attunement and reflection
    -with low external stimulation, there is an increase of internal stimulation (daydreams, sensations, shifting thoughts and emotions)
    -intimacy—developing the ability to be alone so you are never alone
    -your own interests can be your significant relationship, rely on yourself
    -spirituality—focus on spiritual concerns, contemplate the universe and one’s own thoughts
    The role of stress on close relationships and marital satisfaction
    Randall, A.K., Bodenmann, G. (2009). The role of stress on close relationships and marital satisfaction. Clinical Psychology Review, 29(2), 105-115.
    ABSTRACT: Stress is a concept that has received increased attention in marital research during the last decade, showing that it plays an important role in understanding the quality and stability of close relationships. Evidence suggests that stress is a threat to marital satisfaction and its longevity. Research has been based upon theoretical models of stress in close relationships, specifically family stress models [e.g., Hill, R. (1958). Generic features of families under stress. Social Casework, 39, 139–150.; McCubbin, H. I., & Patterson, J. M. (1983). Family transitions: Adaptation to stress. In H. I. McCubbin & C. R. Figley (Eds.), Stress and the family: Coping with normative transitions (Vol. 2, pp. 5–25). New York: Brunner/Mazel] and couple's stress model's proposed by Karney, Story, and Bradbury [Karney, B. R., Story, L. B., & Bradbury, T. N. (2005). Marriages in context: Interactions between chronic an acute stress among newlyweds. In T. A. Revenson, K. Kayser, & G. Bodenmann (Eds.), Couples coping with stress: Emerging perspectives on dyadic coping (pp.13–32). American Psychological Association: Washington, D.C.] and Bodenmann [Bodenmann, G. (1995). A systemictransactional conceptualization of stress and coping in couples. Swiss Journal of Psychology, 54, 3449.; Bodenmann, G. (2005). Dyadic coping and its significant for marital functioning. In T. Revenson, K. Kayser, & G. Bodenmann (Eds.), Couples coping with stress: Emerging perspectives on dyadic coping (pp.33–50). American Psychological Association: Washington, D.C.]. In this review we: (1) examine the various theoretical models of stress, (2) analyze and summarize the typologies relating to stress models (internal versus external, major versus minor, acute versus chronic), and (3) summarize findings from stress research in couples that has practical significance and may inspire clinical work. Future directions in research and clinical significance are suggested.
    Three views of stress
    Stimulus: the trigger
    Reaction: the result
    Process: between person and environment
    Transactional definition of stress and coping
    "demands of a situation only become stressful according to the subjective negative appraisals of the person" (p. 106).
    Taxonomy of stressors
    Locus of stress: inside or outside relationship
    Intensity of stress: major versus minor
    Duration of stress: acute versus chronic
    Retrieved from:
    Klinic Community Heath Centre. (January 2010). Stress & Stress Management. 1-30.
    Summary:Information and education about stress, the effects of stress, and the most popular stress management and relaxation techniques that are being used today. This information could be helpful for people who want to learn how to react to stress in a more constructive, proactive way. The basic premise of this manual is that the benefits of stress reduction and relaxation techniques can be best noticed after they have been practiced regularly over a period of time.
    Mihaela, M. (2010). THE CONCEPT OF STRESS AND WAYS OF MANAGING IT. Young Economists Journal / Revista Tinerilor Economisti, 8(14), 69-74.
    Abstract:There is no doubt that nowadays stress has become an element which exists in everybody’s life. Although it is not by far a new phenomenon, nevertheless it becomes more and more important and it affects all countries, all professional and social categories, as well as family and society as a whole. It is very important both for human beings and for organizations to become aware of stress and to manage it in the right way, so that its negative effects can be annihilated and the performed activity not be affected.
    -People feel stress when they perceive an imbalance between the demands which are imposed and the resources they have at their disposal to address these
    requests (Deaconu et al., 2004). (Mihaela, 2010, p.71)
    -become aware of stress and recognize that it is present in your life
    -employers should provide stress reducing climates
    - increase social support, improve communication, stress management programs

    III. ADDITIONAL RESOURCES (Video clips, podcasts, lectures, etc.)
    on wiki and
    annotations/summaries of findings/relevance
    Evolution, Emotion, and Reason: Love (Guest Lecture by Peter Salovey)
    Salovey, P. (2007). Evolution, emotion, and reason: love. [Video file]. Retrieved from
    Theory of love: Sternberg's triangle, intimacy, passion, commitment (need

    all 3 for love)
    It's not love unless you decide that you are in a love relationship and you desire to maintain commitment.
    With all things being equal, the closer you are to a person, the more likely a romantic relationship will develop.
    Similarity influences romance--when people are more similar, they are more likely to find each other attractive.
    We tend to fall in love with people with whom we are already familiar.
    Generally, we tend to
    sections, please be attractedsure to people who appear competent to us, unless they are "too competent," then they might appear threatening to us.
    Pratfall effect: liking for person increases when s/he has a failure experience
    Looks matter.
    Positive person whose regard starts to fade is the one who can hurt you.
    Biblical References
    And we know that in all things God works to the good of those who love him, who are called according to His purpose
    (Romans 8:28, New International Version)
    God said to Moses, “I AM WHO I AM.[a] This is what you are to say to the Israelites: ‘I AM has sent me to you.’”
    (Exodus 3:14)
    Stress Management: How to Reduce, Prevent,
    include relevant and Cope with Stress
    Smith, M., & Segal, R. (2012, April). Stress management: How to reduce, prevent, and cope
    with stress. Retrieved from
    Summary: This appears to be a good article on managing stress. The article talks about healthy and non-healthy stress and coping mechanisms. The article introduces 6 stress management strategies. Those 6 strategies are avoid unnecessary stress (learn how to say no, gain control of your environment), alter the situation (be willing to compromise, manage time better), adapt to the stressor (reframe problems, focus on the positive), accept things you can’t change (share your feelings, learn how to forgive), make time for fun and relaxation (connect with others, keep your sense of humor), and adopt a healthy lifestyle (eat a healthy diet, get enough sleep).
    Stress Management
    4. Develop a Healthy Self-Concept
    Develop a healthy self-concept. (n.d.). Retrieved from concept.html
    Summary: This article discusses how to form your own healthy self-concept. In order to maintain a health self-concept you need to know yourself, love yourself, and be true to yourself. To know yourself is to be able to assess your strengths, weaknesses, and potential. To love yourself is the knowledge that you can change or improve any aspect of your life if you choose to. Be true to yourself means to be honest with yourself and know your own values. The article gives tips and ways that we can improve our own self-concept and live a happier more meaningful life.
    Develop a Healthy Self-concept
    The Alchemist
    Coelho, P. (1988). The Alchemist. New York, NY: HarperCollins.
    "The secret of life, though, is to fall seven times and to get up eight times" (p. xi).
    "when someone sees the same people every day,… they wind up becoming a part of that person's life. And then they want the person to change. If someone isn't what others want them to be, the others become angry. Everyone seems to have a clear idea of how other people should lead their lives, but non about his or her own" (16).
    The secret is here in the present. If you pay attention to the present, you can improve upon it. And, if you improve on the present, what comes later will also be better" (107).
    There is only one thing that makes a dream impossible to achieve: the fear of failure" (147).
    Francis Chan
    Balance beam Christian
    Fear holding you back from a fulfilling life; reaching your full potential
    Nick Vujicic
    A life without limits
    Positive attitude
    Reaching your full potential
    Being thankful
    Biblical References:
    Surely God is my salvation; I will trust and not be afraid. The Lord, the Lord, is my strength and my song; he has become my salvation. – Isaiah 12:2
    I will praise the Lord who counsels me; even at night my heart instructs me. – Psalm 16:7
    I will instruct you and teach you in the way you should go; I will counsel you and watch over you. – Psalm 32:8
    You will keep in perfect peace him whose mind is steadfast (fixed in direction, unwavering, firm in purpose, place, or position) because he trusts in you. – Isaiah 26:3
    Have I not commanded you? Be strong and courageous. Do not be terrified; do not be discouraged, for the Lord your God will be with you wherever you go. – Joshua 1:9
    Trust in the Lord with all your heart and lean not on your own understanding; in all your ways acknowledge him and he will make your paths straight. – Proverbs 3:5
    Good Compromise vs. Bad Compromise
    Salmanson, Karen. (2009, November) Good Compromise vs. Bad Compromise. Retrieved from
    This article focuses on the comparison between good and bad compromises in relationships and then discusses what a healthy and unhealthy compromise looks like. Good compromise is something that is needed to maintain a good positive happy relationship.
    Summary: Guided relaxation therapy with positive affirmations to improve personal relationships.
    correctly formatted citations.

    (view changes)
    10:58 am

Monday, May 7

  1. 9:02 pm
  2. page home edited ... {what is love.pdf} Negative Childhood Experiences and Adult Love Relationships McCarthy, G…
    {what is love.pdf}
    Negative Childhood Experiences and Adult Love Relationships
    McCarthy, G. & Maughan, B. (2010). Negative childhood experiences and adult love relationships: The role of internal working models of attachment. Attachment & Human Development, 12 (5), 445-461.
    Important information
    -negative parent-child relationships have been linked to struggles in adult love relationships
    -we create internal working models of attachment relationships from infancy on
    -whether these negative experiences affect us depends on our perspective of them
    -do we accept that they happened?
    -do we accept and value attachment relationships regardless?
    -secure attachment was associated with higher quality relationships later
    Nosko, A., Tieu, T., Lawford, H., & Pratt, M. (2011) How do I love thee? Let me count the ways: Parenting during adolescence, attachment styles, and romantic narratives in emerging adulthood. Developmental Psychology, 47 (3), 645-657.
    Important Information
    -search for intimacy begins in emerging adulthood
    -development of intimacy is influenced by how we were raised by our parents
    -for true intimacy to occur the individual needs to have developed a sense of identity
    -part of human nature to develop one’s own life story
    -childhood experiences play a role in the development of intimate relationships in adulthood
    -parenting styles and the parent-child bond also have long lasting effects on the adult relationships
    -warm and supportive parents lead to healthier relationships
    -authoritative parenting has been associated with higher quality relationships
    -Bowlby says we create working models of relationships with our parents and use those as guidelines for future relationships
    -perceptions of romantic support systems and attachment figures may be linked to how we learn from and retell romantic experiences
    -llife story perspective is important to understanding the underlying mechanisms of a healthy,secure relationship
    -knowing you have a warm and caring caregiver who you can rely on lets you explore your environment and own identity, these things benefit future relationships

    How do I love Thee? Let me count the ways
    10. {I know what love means.pdf}
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  3. page home edited ... -What kind of person would you like as a partner in life? Corey, G. & Schneider Corey, M.…
    -What kind of person would you like as a partner in life?
    Corey, G. & Schneider Corey, M. (2010). I Never Knew I Had a Choice: Explorations in Personal Growth (9th ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.
    Chapter 4: Body Image
    "The most important component in effecting change in your bodily image is your own perception. This is where your program of change begins." (p. 123)
    -this can affect other areas of your life
    -easy to get trapped in self-destructive patterns of critical self-judgment
    -need a basic change in attitude and lifestyle
    -How can I move towards self-acceptance? How satisfied am I with my body image? What do I want to work on?

    1. Ch. 6– Characteristics of Inauthentic Love
    There are many different characteristics that accompany true love but also inauthentic love. According to Corey & Corey they include:
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  4. page Question 5 edited ... Does a lack of life meaning cause boredom? Death, Life, Sacrity The Dynamics of death and m…
    Does a lack of life meaning cause boredom?
    Death, Life, Sacrity
    The Dynamics of death and meaning
    Three ways to be happy
    Vella-Brodrick, D. A., Park, N., & Peterson, C. (2008). Three ways to be happy: Pleasure, engagement, and meaning-Findings from Australian and US samples. Soc Indic Res, 90, 165-179.
    Important Information
    -hedonic perspective talks about the importance of pleasurable activities for achieving the good life
    -positive emotions, pleasure and positive affect benefit your health and well-being
    “The intervention which involved writing down three good things that happened each day (a form of savouring), was effective in producing happiness for at least 6 months (which was the final testing period)” (Vella-Brodrick, D. A., Park, N., & Peterson, C., 2008, p. 166).
    -another factor in happiness was finding a meaning in life which also was related to positive mental health
    -the last factor was flow which means being completely immersed in a specific activity, concentration, involvement, and enjoyment
    -state of well-being involves eudaimonic qualities like personal growth, meaning and a higher purpose
    -individuals need these three orientations 1) pleasure 2) engagement 3) meaning
    Fahlman, S. A., Mercer, K. B., Gaskovski, P., Eastwood, A. E., & Eastwood, J. D. (2009). Does a lack of life meaning cause boredom? Results from psychometric, longitudinal, and experimental analyses. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 28 (3), 307-340.
    Important Information
    -boredom involves dissatisfaction and disengagement in one’s environment or current activity
    - “Studies have shown that boredom is correlated with various types of negative affect, including depression, anxiety, apathy, hopelessness, and lacking a sense of meaning or purpose in life” (Fahlman, S. A., Mercer, K. B., Gaskovski, P., Eastwood, A. E., & Eastwood, J. D., 2009, p. 308).
    - “Although divers in their thinking, many existential theorists posit that lacking a sense of life meaning is at the forefront of human suffering, and that experiences of boredom and negative affect are central components of this lack of purpose or meaning” (p. 309)
    -if an individual can adopt a meaningful life project than boredom may be overcome
    -boredom and life meaning share a closer relationship with each other than they do with depression or anxiety
    King, L. A., Hicks, J. A, & Abdelkhalik, J. (2009). Death, life, scarcity, and value: An alternative perspective on the meaning of death. Journal of Psychological Science, 20 (12), 1459-1462.
    Important Information
    -experience of death can bring a renewed appreciation to life’s value
    - “As such, death represents the scarcity of life and should, therefore, share a strong relationship with life’s value” (King, L. A., Hicks, J. A, & Abdelkhalik, J., 2009, p. 1459).
    -promoting the value of life also makes the notion of death more accessible
    -when death is salient, life is better
    -rather than being connected with meaninglessness, the reality of death may promote meaning in your life

    Schiffrin, H., & Nelson, S. S. (2010). Stressed and Happy? Investigating the Relationship Between Happiness and Perceived Stress. Journal Of Happiness Studies, 11(1), 33-39
    -differing views on stress and happiness being related
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  5. page Question 5 edited ... What explains the inhumanity I see in the world? What kind of future do I want? What can I do…
    What explains the inhumanity I see in the world?
    What kind of future do I want? What can I do to help create this kind of future?
    Corey and Corey (2010) discuss work and recreation and provide tips in creating a more meaningful life. They first state that “the balance we find between work and recreation can contribute to our personal vitality or to a stressful experience that ultimately results in burnout.” They discuss the importance of recreation stating that it involves creating new interests. In addition they bring up suggestions of what you can do when looking for a job or career. Corey and Corey (2010, pg. 287) discuss a three step process when career planning. They include: to discover your area of interest, identify occupations in your interest area, and determine which occupation correspond to your ability.
    Provide link to PDF or full-text of article and annotations/summaries of article
    The Dynamics of death and meaning
    Three ways to be happy
    Schiffrin, H., & Nelson, S. S. (2010). Stressed and Happy? Investigating the Relationship Between Happiness and Perceived Stress. Journal Of Happiness Studies, 11(1), 33-39
    -differing views on stress and happiness being related
    -this article found an inverse relationship

    III. ADDITIONAL RESOURCES (Video clips, podcasts, lectures, etc.)
    Provide link to file or embed on wiki and annotations/summaries of findings/relevance
    Take on a challenge Here are some ideas that young people have come up with to make life more interesting. • Check the topic Employment for some ideas on volunteer work, getting grants, and online youth media sites. • Draw, paint or write (poems or stories) for pleasure or as a form of expression. You can learn how to do it online. Search 'learn to draw'. • Visit or phone a friend or relative. Hang out. • Make something - use wood, material, beads, or paints… • Join a club, group or get involved in a community project. Check out our topic Exercise. • Do some volunteer work - there are lots of things to get involved in. Ask at your local council or community centre. Get hooked on fishing, rock-climbing, mountain biking, skating, surfing… • Read a book or write your own! There are loads of sites that can help you learn to write, and even places to send stuff to and get people to read it. • Start a blog. It's like an online diary. • Take up belly dancing, aerobics, yoga or meditation. • Cook an exotic meal, a cake or a huge batch of biscuits. If you can, invite your friends over or enjoy it with your family. Make it special. • Go camping - take a can of baked beans and a tent and have a great time! • Investigate aromatherapy or the universe or start a collection. • Go for a hike at the beach or a national park nearby. • Check out the museum, art gallery, library or any exhibitions on at the moment. • What is important is you find things that are challenging, interesting and value you. Go for it! Take charge. This is your life, don't let boredom take over!
    This site works through different themes in life and the pursuit of meaning.

    For all sections, please be sure to include relevant and correctly formatted citations.
    SANDBOX (Please Review These Resources and Consider Inclusion Above)
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  6. page Question 4 edited ... -nonjudgmental listening and acceptance as a condition for people to feel free enough to chang…
    -nonjudgmental listening and acceptance as a condition for people to feel free enough to change
    -accept yourself and move towards being open to experience
    Chapter 2 "In Making Peace With Your Parents, psychiatrist Harold Bloomfield (1983) points out that many of us suffer frin psychological wounds as a result from unfinished business with out parents." (Croey and Corey, 2010, pg 82) For an individual to move on with his or her life, they must take charge and reflect upon what type of an enviroonment they want, and then determine what aspects they would like to change. A phrase that comes to mind is similar to what is modeled is sometimes what people do.
    Chapter 3
    Forgiveness and letting go of resentment and regret are essential to working through unfinished business that prevents us from living in the present.
    -these family behaviors set up prototypes or norms for behaviors in outside relationships (Bowlby) and personality traits observed later in life
    Unraveling the role of forgiveness in family relationships
    Wade, N. G. (2010). Introduction to the Special Issue on Forgiveness in Therapy. Journal Of Mental Health Counseling, 32(1), 1-4.
    -develop empathy for the person who offended you

    III. ADDITIONAL RESOURCES (Video clips, podcasts, lectures, etc.)
    Biblical references
    For all sections, please be sure to include relevant and correctly formatted citations.
    -forgiveness is a choice

    SANDBOX (Please Review These Resources and Consider Inclusion Above)
    Chapter 2 "In Making Peace With Your Parents, psychiatrist Harold Bloomfield (1983) points out that many of us suffer frin psychological wounds as a result from unfinished business with out parents." (Croey and Corey, 2010, pg 82) For an individual to move on with his or her life, they must take charge and reflect upon what type of an enviroonment they want, and then determine what aspects they would like to change. A phrase that comes to mind is similar to what is modeled is sometimes what people do.
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  7. page Question 3 edited ... 16. Stability and Change in the First 10 Years of Marriage: Does Commitment Confer Benefits Be…
    16. Stability and Change in the First 10 Years of Marriage: Does Commitment Confer Benefits Beyond the Effects of Satisfaction?
    OVERVIEW: Arguably the simplest explanation for why a marriage dissolves is that one or both spouses become increasingly dissatisfied, diminishing the quality of couple interaction and prompting a separation or divorce in turn. Meta-analytic findings confirm the link between relationship distress and dissolution, but the magnitude
    modest (r  .3–.4; Karney
    reasons other than their immediate emotional appraisals of the partnership (e.g., Kelley, 1983). A rich literature sheds light on the stabilizing role of commitment in dating relationships (e.g., Arriaga& Agnew, 2001), but the possibility that commitment operates differently in longer term partnerships has led some to call specifically for research on commitment in marriage and on the marital maintenance behaviors that commitment might motivate (e.g., Finkel, Rusbult, Kumashiro, & Hannon, 2002). This article responds to this call, using observational and 11-year longitudinal data from newlywed spouses to address two questions that are largely unaddressed in the marital commitment literature: First, does commitment stabilize marriage? Second, does commitment motivate interpersonal behaviors? Because lowered relationship
    satisfaction provides a more parsimonious explanation for why spouses neglect relationship maintenance and contemplate divorce, we tested whether any effects of commitment on relationship outcomes and processes remain after controlling for spouses’ relationship satisfaction judgments.
    and time.
    For all sections, please be sure to include relevant and correctly formatted citations.
    SANDBOX (Please Review These Resources and Consider Inclusion Above)
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  8. page Question 3 edited ... -this leads to increased communication and breaking down those walls -be willing to test, ada…
    -this leads to increased communication and breaking down those walls
    -be willing to test, adapt and change your perceptions
    Corey & Corey Meaningful Relationships: A Personal View (p.197)
    Corey and Corey provide a list of qualities that make up a good relationship. I have condensed and paraphrased the list:
    - Each partner has a separate identity
    - Each partner gives and receives honest feedback
    - …assumes responsibility for his/ her own happiness
    - …are willing to work at a healthy relationship
    - …can have fun and play together
    - …take responsibility for sexual enjoyment
    - Both partners are equal
    - …are able to find meaning beyond the relationship
    - ….are individually working on goals, work, play, and relationships with others
    - They chose to stay with each other and not out a sense of duty
    - They deal with conflict constructively
    - They are not dependent on each other for their sense of personal worth
    - Encouragement instead of control

    Corey, G., & Corey, M. (2010). I never knew I had a choice: Explorations in personal growth. (9th ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning.
    Stacy D. Phillips is a co-founder of Phillips, Lerner & Lauzon, which specializes in high-profile family law matters. She is co-chair of the Women's Political Committee and a member of Divorce Magazine's North American Advisory Board. She can be reached at (310) 277-7117. View her firm's //Divorce Magazine// profile here.
    summary: this is an online news article. All the 10 tips are agreeable. It gives the ten best tips to rekindle what was once there. Like any marriage intervention, it takes work and time.

    For all sections, please be sure to include relevant and correctly formatted citations.
    SANDBOX (Please Review These Resources and Consider Inclusion Above)
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  9. page Question 4 edited ... Question 4 Self-Forgiveness:The Stepchild of Forgiveness Research Hall, J. H., & Fincha…
    Question 4
    Self-Forgiveness:The Stepchild of Forgiveness Research
    Hall, J. H., & Fincham, F. D. (2005). Self-forgiveness: The stepchild of forgiveness research. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 24 (5), 621-637.
    Important Information
    -self-forgiveness: emphasizes self-love and respect when you have done something wrong; recognize your intrinsic worth separate from the wrongdoing; foster compassion, generosity and love towards oneself; we are merely human
    -become at peace with themselves and their behaviors, not to say that the behavior should be overlooked or is acceptable
    -this requires a conscious effort to forgive yourself
    -have to be careful because self-forgiveness can be conditional rather than interpersonal forgiveness which is unconditional
    -consequences of not forgiving self may be more severe than not forgiving others
    -we must first forgive ourselves before we can learn to forgive others
    -real self-forgiveness occurs when you recognize you have done something wrong and you accept responsibility for it (requires a lot of inner strength
    -positively associated with self-esteem and life satisfaction
    Maio, G. R., Thomas, G., Fincham, F. D., & Carnelley, K. B. (2008). Unraveling the role of forgiveness in family relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94 (2), 307-319.
    Important Information
    -the meaning of forgiveness should depend on the people within that relationship because relationships provide different psychological needs
    -what purpose does forgiveness serve?
    -based on evolutionary theory, humans are more likely to forgive their children because they want to be good parents and continue gene replication
    -more problems with communication in father-child relationships than mother-child relationships…less attention paid to forgiveness, greater detachment from fathers
    -those children with lower levels of depression, anxiety and aggression were more likely to forgive their parents
    -children were less likely to forgive if they thought their parent would repeat the offense
    -difficult time for the children to perceive forgiveness from the father and same from the father to the child
    -those children who reported higher levels of forgiveness more often felt that they had been forgiven
    -in family relationships, forgiveness is important to the dynamic of that family
    -increase in traits such as agreeableness and emotional stability
    -these family behaviors set up prototypes or norms for behaviors in outside relationships (Bowlby) and personality traits observed later in life

    Unraveling the role of forgiveness in family relationships
    III. ADDITIONAL RESOURCES (Video clips, podcasts, lectures, etc.)
    Forgiveness and the Freedom of Letting Go
    Forgiveness and the freedom of letting go [Web]. (2007). Retrieved from
    to forgive.
    “Forgiveness is a healing journey for both body and soul.” (Butterflygris, 2007)
    “Forgiveness is a creative act that changes us from prisoners of the past to liberated people at peace with our memories. There is no future in the past. Non forgiveness keeps you in the struggle.” (Butterflygris, 2007)
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