QUESTION 5

Imagine that you have a younger sibling who is 17-years-old and is facing an existential dilemma. S/he reports being frequently “bored with life” and not sure “what it is all about.” Write a letter to this sibling using research-based findings to help this individual become a happier person. In organizing your thoughts around this issue consider three different elements of happiness espoused in the literature: (1) pursuit of pleasure (hedonism), (2) meaning (eudaimonia), or (3) engagement (flow). What role does each play in the “life well lived”? Consider using real-life examples and comparisons from your own life. How has this worked for you? What advice can you give as the older, wiser sibling? Consider recent research in your answer and frame your response in the language of the course.


OUTLINE FOR QUESTION 5


For all sections, please be sure to include relevant and correctly formatted citations.




I. MATERIAL FROM TEXTBOOK (Organized By Chapter)


  1. Chapter 1
    1. To make changes in your life, you need to assess where you are now, whether you are satisfied and getting what you want, etc...
    2. We choose who we are and how we want our lives to be.
    3. Better to talk of the “self-actualizing process” rather than becoming a “self-actualized person.”
    4. Very important factors for happiness: love, relationships, work, genetics, personality
      • Both self-esteem and other esteem are crucial
        • Other esteem involves respect, acceptance, caring and valuing and promoting others, without reservation
        • The challenge is to learn the balance between caring for self and showing high esteem for others
      • Alfred Adler
        • Stresses self-determination
        • We are creative, active, choice-making beings whose every action has purpose and meaning.
        • Community feeling—belonging to the ongoing development of humankind
        • Social interest—being at least as interested in the well-being of others as we are with ourselves
        • Happiness comes from being useful to others
        • We can only actualize our potential through the community
      • Carl Jung
        • Individuation—a fully harmonious and integrated personality is the primary goal
          • In order to achieve this, we have to know and accept the full range of our being
          • We must accept the “shadow” side of our character
            • Does not have to dominate, but be recognized as a part of our being
      • Carl Rogers (Person-centered approach)
        • Fully functioning person—when people give up their façade and accept themselves, they move in the direction of being open to experience (they begin to see reality without distorting it)
        • Because people are basically cooperative and constructive, there isno need to control their aggressive impulses (people should be trusted)
  2. Chapter 1:
    In chapter one Corey and Core discuss many topics that I would utilize when talking to my sibling. I would start by asking why they were so dissatisfied with life, what things is particular were they struggling with. Is it a problem in school? Or possibly with an inability to settle on a career choice? Is it something that is a short term unhappiness (being in a job you do not like or a program of study that does not fit you)? The first page of Corey and Corey's writing states "We do have choices!" (Corey & Corey, 2012, p.4). Not to mention the title of their book I never knew I had a choice. Just within the first few pages it talks about seizing the opportunities you never knew you could take. Corey and Corey detail that control is often the unlocking of our own happiness (p.4) and I could not agree more. The worst position to be in is one where you are unhappy with your life but feel as though you do not have a choice. I have a friend that is older than me but still trying to please her family by continuing in the program of study of their choice. After switching concentrations I feel that I have the power to make decisions for myself especially about life choices. Corey and Corey continued to say that the objectives that are very important in happiness are "love and intimate relationships, work, genetics, and personality" (p.5). The meaning of life is all dependent on what one believes. I had detailed earlier that my sibling could possibly be struggling with a short term unhappiness like being dissatisfied at work. Corey and Corey talk about the meaning of life (p. 379-382) like harmony, peace, spiritual evolution, to bring something to this world and so on. Because we are unhappy in one endeavor should not make us unhappy in all.
  3. Weiten, Lloyd, Dunn and Hammer’s (2009) conclusions on what constitutes happiness:
    • A number of factors contribute to determining our subjective well-being or happiness:
      • Relatively unimportant factors in determining happiness: money, age, gender, parenthood, intelligence, physical attractiveness
      • Somewhat important factors in determining happiness: health, social activity, religion
      • Very important factors in determining happiness: love and intimate relationships, work, genetics, and personality
      • Research on happiness does not seem to support popular notions about what makes us happy.
      • “Our level of happiness does not depend on our positive and negative experiences as much as some believe. Instead, how we feel about our experiences and how we perceive what we have in life are crucial in bringing us happiness” (Corey & Corey, 2010, p. 5).
      • Many people find happiness in spite of insurmountable problems.
    • Happiness is not something that automatically comes our way; happiness is largely a function of the choices we make in the following areas of life: personality, health, managing stress, love, intimate relationships, gender, sexuality, work, recreation, solitude, spirituality/religion, death, and meaning in life.
  4. Chapter 2
    1. Adolescence- Starts in early teens and lasts until about the age of 20

    2. Critical Period for developing a personal identity

    3. Need to experience success during this period that will lead to a sense of both individuality and connectedness which will lead to self-respect and self-confidence.

    4. “Adolescents need opportunities to explore and understand the wide range of their experiences and to learn how to communicate with significant others in such a way that they can make their wants, feelings, thoughts, and beliefs known” (Corey & Corey, 2010, p.61).

    5. “A sense of self-efficacy develops from learning to take control of one’s life when one often feels out of control. This is an important developmental milestone for many young adults” (Corey & Corey, 2010, p.61).

    6. Many young people feel too pressured to make decisions too early and they may never realize the range of possibilities open to them.

    7. “When we encounter such obstacles, we can accept them as signposts and continue down the same path or use them as opportunities for growth” (Corey & Corey, 2010, p. 65).

    8. Autonomy-refers to mature independence and interdependence

      1. Becoming a fully functioning person occurs in the context of relationships with others and concern for the welfare of others

    9. Feminist perspective—a systemic approach that emphasizes the social context of behavior and how gender affects behavior

      1. Focused on the limitations of traditional psychological approaches (Erikson & Freud)
      2. Emphasized finding connections with others
      • Developing a self concept
        • Self concept—awareness about yourself
          • Includes:
            • Perceptions about the kind of person you are
            • Your view of your worth, value and possibilities
            • The way that you see yourself in relation to others
            • The way you ideally would like to be
            • The degree to which you accept yourself as you are
          • Influences how you present yourself to others and how you act and feel when you are with them
    10. Erikson
      • Identity versus Identity confusion
      • Moving from an egocentric orientation to a perspective that includes acknowledging the thoughts, feelings and values of others
      • Psychological moratorium
        • A period during which society would give permission to adolescents to experiment with different roles and values so they could sample life before making major commitments
      • Peer groups increase in importance
      • Individuation—separating from our family system and establishing our own identity based on our experiences
      • Quote:
        • "For Erikson, the major developmental conflcits of adolescence center on clarification of who they are, where they are going, and how they are going to get there" (Corey & Corey, 2010, p. 61).


  5. Chapter 3
    1. You can learn to engage in a dialogue with your self-defeating thoughts and beliefs and acquire a more positive and constructive set of beliefs.
    2. emerging adulthood: 18-25; characterized by change and exploration of life directions; accepting responsibility for one's self, making independent decisions, becoming financially independent; examine choices regarding love, work, worldview, education
      • Feminist approach to psychological development
        • Stresses connections and disconnections in relationships
        • Connection—an interaction between two or more people that is mutually empathic and mutually empowering
        • Disconnection—an encounter that works against mutual empathy and mutual empowerment
        • The source of psychological problems is disconnection
          • A relationship in which one person gains power at the expense of the other = disconnection
        • The goal is to learn to be an authentic individual who finds meaningful connections or relationships with others
      • Self-in-relation theory (Jordan, Kaplan, Miller, Stiver & Surrey, 1991)
        • Interdependence of people rather than independence is important
        • In order to relate to others, you have to know about yourself first
        • Autonomy includes:
          • Self-in-relation
          • Self-in-context
          • IMPORTANT: Questioning the values you live by and make them your own
        • Quote:
          • "Thus, the self develops in the context of relationships, rather than as an isolated or separate autonomous individual. We are emphasizing the importance of a two-way interaction model, where it becomes as important to understand as to be understood, to empower as well as to be empowered" (Jordan et all, 1991, p. 59)
          • Jordan, J. V., Kaplan, A. G., Miller, J. B., Stiver, I. P., & Surrey, J. L. (1991). Women's growth through connection: Writings from the Stone Center. New York: Guilford.


  1. Chapter 3 – Emerging Adulthood
    “Emerging adulthood is a time of life when many different directions remain possible, when little about the future has been decided for certain, when the scope of independent exploration of life’s possibilities is greater for most people than it will be at any other period of the life course” (Corey & Corey, 2010, p. 88).
    “What matters most to emerging adults are three individualistic qualities: accepting responsibility for one’s self, making independent decisions, and becoming financially independent…(this is) a time of change and exploration for most young people in industrialized societies – a time when they examine life’s choices regarding love, work , and worldview:”

    · Love – considering the kind of person he or she wishes to have as a life partner
    · Work – exploration of work possibilities and how they will set the foundation for jobs they will have in adulthood
    · Worldview – questioning the worldview they were exposed to during childhood and adolescence; process of reexamining religious beliefs and values learned as children (sometimes results in forming a different value system, but oftentimes it leads to rejecting an earlier belief system without constructing a new set of values) (Corey & Corey, 2010, p. 88)

    ---Values---“to make choices, we must examine the sources of our values and the extent to which they are enhancing our life” (Corey & Corey, 2010, p. 374).
    ---Questions to ask yourself---Where did I get my values? Is there a higher power or a God? What does religion (spirituality) mean to me? What kind of future do I want? What can I do to help create this kind of future? (Corey & Corey, 2010, p. 381).

4. Chapter 4
  • Spirituality
    • An provide an inner source of strength and calmness and enhance your sense of wellbeing
    • Spiritually healthy individuals identify their own basic purpose in life; learn how to experience love, joy, peace and fulfillment; and help themselves and others achieve their full potential
    • Spirituality—encompasses our relationship to the universe and is an avenue for finding meaning and purpose in living
    • Religion—refers toa set of believes that connect us to a higher power or a God
    • Walt Schafer’s personal philosophy
      • Continually have visions and dreams, some of which ahe social significance that will benefit others
      • Work hard, at least partly with others to bring these dreams and visions to reality
      • Balance this hard work with play, care of body and spirit, intimacy, friendship and healthy pleasures
      • Enjoy the process
  • Wellness and life choices
    1. Lifestyle choice that is a lifelong process to meeting our five areas of needs; physical, psychological, social, intellectual, and spiritual
    2. Individuals who are "well" commit to a lifestyle that:
      1. Tends to their physical beings
      2. Intellectually challenges them
      3. Expresses emotions
      4. Find rewarding relationships
      5. Searches for meaning that will offer direction to their life
  1. Chapter 10
    1. Focusing on a particular occupation too soon is problematic b/c students' interests are not sufficiently reliable or stable to predict job success and satisfaction; in addition, most students do not know enough self-knowledge or knowledge of educational and vocational opportunities to make decisions
    2. Important factors in occupational decision-making process: motivation, achievement, attitude, ability, aptitude, interest, value, self-concept, temperament, personality, SES, parental influence, ethnicity, gender, disability
    3. The pressure to make a decision too soon often results in choosing a path/occupation that a young person may not have interests in or the abilities required for success.
    4. Erikson presents an idea of for a psychological moratorium during adolescence to "enable young people to get some distance from the pressure of choosing a career too soon. A moratorium can reduce the pressure of having to make key life choices without sufficient data" (Corey & Corey, 2010, p.285).
    5. Recreation- creating new interests for ourselves that become our path to vitality
    6. Leisure- "free time" Time that we make for ourselves and we can control.
    7. Both recreation and leisure time can create opportunities to try new activities, increases happiness, and provides balance in our lives.
Chapter 12: Death and Loss
-finding the meaning in life through death and loss
-what is dead in you?
When do you most feel alive? When do you feel least alive?
(p.340)
-awareness, understanding and acceptance of death can lay the groundwork for a meaningful life
-what are our priorities and what do we value most
-suffering is a part of life
-Ellis: we choose our attitude, gives us the ability to cope
“In what ways am I not as alive as I might be?” (Corey & Corey, 2010, p. 340)
Our Fears of Death (p. 341)
-Tuesdays with Morrie: “The truth is, once you learn how to die, you learn how to live” (Corey & Corey, 2010, p. 341)
-be open with those we love
Death and the Meaning of Life (p. 343-344)
-acceptance of death gives meaning to our existence and makes every moment count
-those who have died can teach us a great deal about living life to the fullest
-death often gives people the ability to instigate inner changes that help them to have a powerful focus on life
*rather than let events happen to us we should actively create the kind of life we want
-view life as an opportunity
-awareness of death can produce positive change in a person’s life
*Does the fact that you will die give meaning to your life? If you only had 6 months left to live, what would you do differently?
Freedom in Dying (p. 354)
-sometimes we forget to simply take time to really experience and enjoy the simple things in life
Being “Dead” Psychologically and Socially (p. 365-368)
-to feel alive we must release what is dead within us and mourn those lost parts of self
*Are you Alive to Your Senses and Your Body?
-stop and notice details of your surroundings
-learn the art of mindful living, savor the present moment
*Can You be Spontaneous and Playful?
-humor promotes new perspectives
-what inner messages are blocking your ability to let go
*Do You Listen to Your Feelings?
-sometimes decide that feeling involves the risk of pain
-closing ourselves to lows may include closing ourselves to highs
*Are Your Relationships Alive?
-easy to become set in a routine with another person
-no surprise or spontaneity, are you being energized?
*Are You Alive Intellectually and Spiritually?
-applying knowledge gained to your own life and personal development
-what does it mean for you? How are you spiritual in your daily life?
-belonging to a religious group or contemplating the beauty of the natural world
*How Well Are You Living?
-think about how you have lived and what you have missed
5. Chapter 13
  1. Achieving personal identity
  2. Developing key values
  3. Logotherapy
a. The search for purpose
b. Choosing your attitude
c. The relationship between choice and meaning
  1. The foundations of meaning:
  2. Develop a philosophy of life (Corey & Corey pg. 382)
i. Create time to be alone for reflective thought
ii. Reflect on basic assumptions of life (self-judgment vs. self-acceptance)
iii. Meaning of life after death
iv. Challenge your beliefs
v. Acceptance towards others who’s belief systems differ
  1. Religion and Spirituality and Meaning
a. Religion vs. Spirituality
b. Establish basic spiritual values
c. Do your values reflect your religion and/or spiritual beliefs?
d. Do you live your life according to these values?

  • “Involvement in any form of spirituality or religion can create a feeling of belonging and a caring connection with others” (p. 383).
  • “Spiritual/religious beliefs can provide a deep sense of purpose and meaning in life. These beliefs can offer hope in the face of adversity and suffering and can offer a perspective when we are overwhelmed by life’s problems” (p. 383).
  • “True spirituality results in making people calmer, happier, and more peaceful, and it is a mental attitude that can be practiced at any time” (p. 384)
  • “A meaningful life is not lived alone but is the result of connectedness to others in love, work, and community. In accepting and understanding others, we discover deeper meanings in life. If we live in isolation, we are placing a barrier between ourselves and those who are different from us” (p. 390).

Chapter 14: Pathways to Personal Growth (p.408)
-where and how you discover meaning in life changes based on the time in your life, who you are and how you grow
-Are there activities you value, yet rarely take time to do?
-there are no small steps, every step is in the right direction
Pathways for Continued Self-Exploration (p. 408-410)
-Develop a Reading or Writing Program
-meaningful books based on different themes
-devote short times to reflection of thoughts, feelings, and awareness of patterns in your behavior
-Practice Ongoing Self-Assessment
-self-evaluation is the first step toward change
-What areas of your life are working? Which areas aren’t?
-Contemplate Self-Directed Behavior Change
-identify areas for personal change/growth
-set realistic goals for yourself and use specific techniques to help in those areas
Counseling as a Path to Self-Understanding (p. 410-413)
-brings up issues you weren’t aware of
-personal growth is a lifelong process
-need to attend to your physical, psychological, social and spiritual well-being
-not a major change in your personality
-will be more beneficial if you work out the small changes along the way rather than wait until a big change is needed
-don’t let the fear of what anyone would think stop you from getting counseling
-it’s a sign of strength and courage
-can help to find a revised perspective on life
Can you Identify with any of these statements?
  1. I have no sense what to do with my life
  2. I am often depressed
  3. I am using only a fraction of my potential
-Counseling can help to use your inner resources, cope more effectively, get the most from living, learn to create joy in your life, how to use your strengths and be the person you want to be
-learn to critically evaluate your own values, beliefs, thoughts, and assumptions
-Self-Exploration: need discipline, patience and persistence in working on the things in life we can change
-process of self-discovery aimed at empowerment
Concluding Thoughts (p. 416)
-it’s not the big changes that are significant but the willingness to take small steps that will lead to more growth
-there is no one path for anyone to take, be willing and open to changes in your path along the way

Corey, G., & Corey, M. (2010). I never knew I had a choice: Explorations in personal growth. (9th ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning.


*Maslow’s Self Actualization

Base: Physical and Survival needs

Safety Needs

Love needs

Ego and Esteem Needs

Top: Need for Self actualization

Self actualizing people are willing to make choices for themselves and they are free to reach their potential. This freedom entails a sense of detachment and a need for privacy, creativity, and spontaneity, and an ability to accept responsibility for choices. (Corey & Corey, 2010 p. 20)

*Women – Expectations

One of the realities of our time is that women are increasingly assuming dual roles of homemaker and worker. Women who are working outside the home particularly with children still at home, is one of the most dramatic social changes in the United States. Women want more and more out of life. (Corey & Corey, 2010 p. 246)

Values are core beliefs that influence how we act. Sometimes we may decide to go against our cultural upbringing to create an identity that is congruent with our own values. (Corey & Corey, 2010 p. 374)

Viktor Frankl, a European psychiatrist, dedicated his professional life to the study of meaning in life.

Logotherapy means “therapy through meaning” or “healing through meaning” (Corey & Corey, 2010 p. 377)

Meaning of Life Quote

“I believe we are here to do good. It is the responsibility of every human being to aspire to do something worthwhile, to make this world a better place than the one he found. Life is a gift, and if we accept it, we must contribute in return. When we fail to contribute, we fail to adequately answer why we are here” (Corey & Corey, 2010 p. 379-380).

Corey and Corey (2010, p. 381) state that many adolescents struggle with these questions. They can thus be used to help you answer some of the questions that your sibling may be facing:
  • Are the values I've believed in all these years the valies I want to continue to live by?
  • Where did I get my values? Are they still valid for me/ Are there additional sources from which I can derive new values?
  • Is there a higher power or a God? What is my perception of a God? What is the nature of the hereafter? What does religion (orspirituality) mean to me?
  • What do I base my ethical and moral decisions on? Peer group standards? Parental standards? The normative values of my society? My culture? My religion? My spirituality?
  • What explains the inhumanity I see in the world?
  • What kind of future do I want? What can I do to help create this kind of future?


Corey and Corey (2010) discuss work and recreation and provide tips in creating a more meaningful life. They first state that “the balance we find between work and recreation can contribute to our personal vitality or to a stressful experience that ultimately results in burnout.” They discuss the importance of recreation stating that it involves creating new interests. In addition they bring up suggestions of what you can do when looking for a job or career. Corey and Corey (2010, pg. 287) discuss a three step process when career planning. They include: to discover your area of interest, identify occupations in your interest area, and determine which occupation correspond to your ability.


II. PEER-REVIEWED RESOURCES


  1. Provide link to PDF or full-text of article and annotations/summaries of article
      • Fave, A. D., Brdar, I., Freire, T., Vella-Brodrick, D., & Wissing, M. P. (2010). The eudiamonic and hedonic components of happiness: qualitative and quantitative findings. Social Indicators Research, 100(2), 185-207 .
      • Researchers in positive psychology have investigated happiness primarily from two seemingly disparate conceptualizations: subjective well-being (hedonia) and psychological well-being (eudaimonia).
      • The hedonic conceptualization of happiness focuses on the study of positive emotions and life satisfaction
      • Happiness itself is an ambiguous term, in that it conveys multiple meanings.
      • Happiness usually arises as a by-product of cultivating activities that individuals consider as important and meaningful.
      • In order to understand happiness there is also a need to investigate meaning as the means available to individuals for pursuing well-being.
      • Happiness seems to stem predominantly from interpersonal bonds, mainly intimate relationships and interactions with friends and significant others outside the family
      • Most frequently reported category was harmony/balance; perception of harmony at the inner level, as inner peace, self-acceptance, serenity, a feeling of balance and evenness
      • Harmony is a process rather than a state
      • Other clearly eudaimonic dimensions, namely Engagement, Fulfillment, Meaning,Awareness, Autonomy, Achievement and Optimism, accounted all together for another 38.9% of the definitions of happiness.
      • Definitions of happiness referring to family included items such as ‘‘positive development of children’’, ‘‘good relationship with partner’’, ‘‘sharing within the family’’, and ‘‘trust in partner’’.
      • Prominent association of family with the highest levels of both happiness and meaningfulness; consistency was also detected for interpersonal relations and health
      • Finding meaningfulness and experiencing happiness are not the same thing: they do not refer to the same life domains, and their perceived levels differ quantitatively in general and across domains.
      • Abstract: This paper illustrates a new project developed by a cross-country team of researchers, with the aim of studying the hedonic and eudaimonic components of happiness through a mixed method approach combining both qualitative and quantitative analyses. Data were collected from 666 participants in Australia, Croatia, Germany, Italy, Portugal, Spain, and South Africa. A major aim of the study was to examine definitions and
        experiences of happiness using open-ended questions. Among the components of wellbeing traditionally associated with the eudaimonic approach, meaning in particular was explored in terms of constituents, relevance, and subjective experience. The Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) was also administered to quantitatively assess the hedonic dimension of happiness. Results showed that happiness was primarily defined as a condition of psychological balance and harmony. Among the different life domains, family and social relations were prominently associated with happiness and meaningfulness. The quantitative analyses highlighted the relationship between happiness, meaningfulness, and satisfaction with life, as well as the different and complementary contributions of each component to well-being. At the theoretical and methodological levels, findings suggest the importance of jointly investigating happiness and its relationship with other dimensions of well-being, in order to detect differences and synergies among them.
      • Summary: Well-being is prominently pursued and found in meaning and feelings confined to the home environment or to a close circle of friends.

      • Sheldon, K. M., Abad, N., Ferguson, Y., Gunz, A., Houser-Marko, L., Nichols, C. P., Lyubomirsky, S. (2009). Persistent pursuit of need-satisfying goals leads to increased happiness: a 6-month experimental longitudinal study. Motivation and Emotion, 34, 39-48.
      • Participants with initial positive attitudes regarding happiness change obtained larger benefits.
      • Happiness gains are possible, but that they require both ‘‘a will and a proper way"
      • Obstacle to sustainable happiness is hedonic adaptation, the process by which people become acclimated to positive life changes such that they cease to have positive effects.
      • Focus on establishing new patterns of activity, rather than new life circumstances.
      • Although people often strive to improve their circumstances or situations (such as in what house, town, or state they live, what car they drive, or how much money they make), the effects of such changes on happiness are only transient.
      • In contrast, by adopting a new life activity (such as a hobby, group membership, goal, or career), people obtain the potential to generate a steady stream of fresh positive experiences.
      • Self-reported positive activity changes last longer than boosts due to self-reported positive circumstantial changes
      • Type or quality of life change that people make as crucial for determining short-term andlong-term effects on happiness.
      • It takes continuing successful effort in order to produce and maintain happiness gains.
      • Abstract: University-based community members (N = 181) participated in a four-wave, 6-month longitudinal experiment designed to increase treatment participants’ happiness levels. Participants were randomly assigned to set goals either to improve their life circumstances (comparison condition) or to increase their feelings of autonomy, competence, or relatedness in life (treatment conditions). We hypothesized that sustained gains in happiness would be observed only in the three treatment conditions, and that even these gains would last only when there was continuing goal engagement. Results supported these predictions and the sustainable happiness model on which they were based (Lyubomirsky et al. in Rev Gen Psychol 9:111–131, 2005). Furthermore, participants with initial positive attitudes regarding happiness change obtained larger benefits. We conclude that maintained happiness gains are possible, but that they require both ‘‘a will and a proper way’’ (Lyubomirsky et al. in Becoming happier takes both a will and a proper way: two experimental longitudinal interventions to boost well-being, 2009).
      • Summary: Only when a goal is perceived to be beneficial and one works hard to do well in it will they make long-term gains in happiness. Autonomy and competence are lower in those who fail to achieve their goals. Overall, you must work to make happiness sustainable.
      • Schueller, S. M. & Seligman, M. E. P. (2010). Pursuit of pleasure, engagement, and meaning: Relationships to subjective and objective measures of well-being. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 5(4), 253-163.
      • People aim to increase their well-being in different ways: some seek challenges, others try to make the world a better place, and others just try to have fun. Yet they do not work equally well.
      • Subjective well-being: assessment of affective states and cognitive evaluations
      • Objective well-being: education, achievement, freedom from mental disorder
      • Three distinct pathways to well-being: pleasure, engagement, and meaning.
      • Pursuit of all the three pathways is important to live the ‘full life’.
      • Authentic happiness theory combines hedonic and eudaimonic approaches.
      • More experienced pleasure is equivalent to higher well-being (hedonic).
      • Engaging in activities that are engrossing and absorbing, a state deemed ‘flow’.
      • Finding meaning in one’s life is an important determinant of psychological well-being; allows one to transcend self and provides sense of purpose.
      • Three pathways are distinguishable and all correlated positively with subjective well-being.
      • Those who pursue engagement and meaning have higher educational and occupational achievements
      • Pursuit of all the three pathways leads to the most life satisfaction, positive affect, and general happiness.
      • Abstract: Pleasure, engagement, and meaning are all unique predictors of individuals’ well-being. We explored the relationship between the pursuit of each of these pathways and well-being. Participants (N¼13,565) visited a website and completed a measure about their orientation toward pleasure, engagement, and meaning as a pathway to happiness as well as measures of subjective and objective well-being (OWB). All three pathways correlated with higher levels of subjective well-being (SWB). Pursuing engagement and meaning, however, were more strongly related to SWB than pursuing pleasure. Objective indicators of well-being, including measures of occupational and educational attainment, displayed a similar pattern, with engagement and meaning positively related, whereas pleasure was negatively related. Although these results are merely correlational, it suggests that engaging and meaningful activities may have stronger influences on well-being than pursuing pleasure.
      • Summary: Engaging with others and finding meaning are more important to well-being and life satisfaction than pleasure. However, having all three means having a full life.

4. Personal Goals and Well-being: How do Young People Navigate their Lives?

Salmela-Aro, K. (2010). Personal goals and well-being: How do young people navigate their
lives?. New Directions For Child & Adolescent Development, 2010(130), 13-26.
doi:10.1002/cd.278

Abstract: This chapter examines development through different life transitions, such as educational transitions and transition to parenthood during adolescence to adulthood in the context of the life-span model of personal goals. According to the life-span model of motivation, four key mechanisms-channeling, choice, co-regulation, and compensation-play a key role in how young people navigate their life. The aim is to describe how the conceptualized key factors are helpful in understanding the changes from adolescence to emerging adulthood and later in the life course and related well-being. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Summary: I feel this article would be good to relate to the younger sibling who is feeling “lost” about the meaning of life. The author states that there are 4 mechanisms that help us understand the transitions through life. Those 4 mechanisms are: channeling their developmental trajectories, making choices about their future life paths, co-regulating their motivation with others, and they compensate and adjust their goals for the challenges that they are faced with. These can be seen from adolescence to emerging adulthood and even in later stages of life.



5. Hedonia, Eudaimonia, and Well-Being: An Introduction

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2008). Hedonia, eudaimonia, and well-being: an introduction. Journal Of Happiness Studies, 9(1), 1-11. doi:10.1007/s10902-006-9018-1

Abstract: Research on well-being can be thought of as falling into two traditions. In one—the hedonistic tradition—the focus is on happiness, generally defined as the presence of positive affect and the absence of negative affect. In the other—the eudaimonic tradition—the focus is on living life in a full and deeply satisfying way. Recognizing that much recent research on well-being has been more closely aligned with the hedonistic tradition, this special issue presents discussions and research reviews from the eudaimonic tradition, making clear how the concept of eudaimonia adds an important perspective to our understanding of well-being. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Summary: The hedonistic approach is based on happiness. It refers to the presence of positive affect and the absence of negative affect. The eudaimonic approach refers to living in a full and deeply satisfying way. The article discusses how must recent research is about the hedonistic approach. This article attempts to focus more on the eudaimonic approach to living. It presents many important aspects and perspectives that are essential to our understanding and well-being.


6. Peer reviewed text: Life Magazine, the meaning of life.
Life Magazine 1988
Summary:
This Magazine article details responses from various responders that were asked what they found the meaning of life to be. This article covers so many different aspects of what truly goes into the meaning of happiness and I found myself being surprised and some of the angles that people thought out. You could tell that these responses were heartfelt and had touched the lives of these people in a way that could never be undone. These responses made me think and assess my own beliefs as I read through them. There are views that range from Creationism to Darwinism to children with cancer. That was the response that struck me the most. Corey & Corey discuss death and grieving in chapter 12. Within that chapter they have a section titled "Lessons about living from those who are dying" (p.346) and "Death and the meaning of life" (p. 343). When reading the text I did not think that something like a magazine would be able to cover this type of material with the same depth that Corey and Corey did, but I was wrong. Reading about the meaning of life from an 11 year old cancer patient moved me to tears.

7.
Does Life Satisfaction Moderate the Effects of Stressful Life Events on Psychopathological Behavior During Adolescence?
Suldo, S., & Huebner, S. (2004). Does life satisfaction moderate the effects of stressful life events on psychopathological behavior during adolescence?. School Psychology Quarterly, 19(2), 96-105.

Abstract:
Psychologists within a positive psychology framework have proposed the existence of a set of psychological strengths that buffer against the development of psychopathology. To date, most research efforts in positive psychology have focused on adults. This longitudinal study tested the prediction that adolescents' judgments of life satisfaction moderate the influence of stressful life events on the subsequent development of psychopathological behavior. Using a sample of 816 middle and high school students, the study demonstrated support for the moderational model for externalizing behavior outcomes, but not internalizing behavior problems. Specifically, adolescents with positive life satisfaction (vs. those who were dissatisfied with their lives) were less likely to develop later externalizing behaviors in the face of stressful life events. The study also revealed that adolescent life satisfaction reports show moderate stability across a one-year time frame and independently predict subsequent externalizing behavior even while controlling for prior levels of externalizing behavior. Taken together, the findings offer preliminary support that life satisfaction operates as a protective psychological strength that provides a buffer against some effects of adverse life events in adolescence.

Summary:
This article demonstrates that such grand efforts are indeed worthwhile, for in the face of stressful life experiences, positive life satisfaction appears to prevent subsequent delinquent and aggressive behavior that necessitates vast resources being devoted to ameliorating harmful behaviors. A more proactive approach devoted to building strengths in order to prevent pathology is in line with the goals of the positive psychology paradigm, whose rationale is supported by the findings in this study.

life satisfaction

8. Dunn, E, Gilbert, D., & Wilson, T. (2011). Research Dialogue: If money doesn't make you happy, then you probably aren't spending it right. Journal Of Consumer Psychology, 21. pp. 115-125, doi:10.1016/j.jcps.2011.02.002

Abstract:

The relationship between money and happiness is surprisingly weak, which may stem in part from the way people spend it. Drawing on
empirical research, we propose eight principles designed to help consumers get more happiness for their money. Specifically, we suggest that
consumers should (1) buy more experiences and fewer material goods; (2) use their money to benefit others rather than themselves; (3) buy many
small pleasures rather than fewer large ones; (4) eschew extended warranties and other forms of overpriced insurance; (5) delay consumption;
(6) consider how peripheral features of their purchases may affect their day-to-day lives; (7) beware of comparison shopping; and (8) pay close
attention to the happiness of others.

Quote:

“Money is an opportunity for happiness, but it is an opportunity that is routinely squandered because the things that people think will make them happy often don’t” (Dunn et al, 2011, p. 115).

Significant points:

  • There is a weak positive relationship between money and happiness.
    • Many people assume that more money would make more happiness, but this is not necessarily true.
  • What makes us miss happiness?
    • We dream about what we would do or buy in the future
    • BUT, we miss the “context”—all of the responsibilities and liabilities that go along with that thing that we think will make us happy.
    • This is a key reason that we mistakenly think we know what will make us happiest.
    • We often miss what really makes people happy
  • Principles (based on research)
    • Buy experiences instead of things
    • Help others instead of yourself
    • Buy many small pleasures instead of a few big ones
    • Buy less insurance
    • Buy now and consume later
    • Think about what you’re not thinking about
    • Beware of comparison shopping
    • Follow the herd instead of your head




Crockett, L. J., & Beal, S. J. (2012). The life course in the making: Gender and the development of adolescents’ expected timing of adult role transitions. Advance online publication. doi:10.1037/a0027538.


Adolescent role transitions are developed in a cultural and developmental context. For their own futures, adolescents develop expectations with age, and in response to societal constraints, opportunities, and personal experiences. One’s values and interests can help shape goals and affect decisions about occupational and family roles, and gender often plays a role in the expected transitions of timing (Crockett, & Beal, 2012).


Results from this study of high school students indicate that age of role transitions increased as the students progressed through their high school years for expected age of completion of education, age of job entry and that of parenthood. Boys and girls were similar in most of their predictions of role transitions other than some individual factors that could affect the trajectories and the age of marriage (for girls it was earlier). The results show a typical sequence of transitions among Americans today: school completion, job entry, marriage, and then parenthood. The data may also show how youth internalize the theoretical framework that the broader society puts forth (Crockett, & Beal, 2012).



9. Lashbrook, J. (2000). Fitting In: Exploring The Emotional Dimension Of Adolescent Peer Pressure. Life and Health Library

ABSTRACT The general public and academic researchers alike have long recognized the importance of peer relations in the lives of young people. However, three issues are notably absent from the dominant models of peer influence. First, these models neglect the affective dimension of a youth's experiences. Second, the models tend to ascribe a passive role to the youth, a stance also reflected methodologically by the absence of the youth's voice. Third, the motivational component remains unspecified; that is, why does a youth conform to peer influence? Using a framework drawn from recent social psychological work on shame and related feelings, the present study collected qualitative data from twelve college students. The findings indicate that negative emotions play a role in peer influence, particularly feelings of inadequacy and isolation, as well as feeling ridiculed, all of which may be indicative of shame. Thus, shame-related feelings may be instrumental in motivating individuals to conform. A variety of directions for future research are suggested.
Summary The journal talks about how negative emotions lead teenagers 13-17 to be more suspect to peer pressure and to try things such as drugs and alcohol. The research showed that students who had more positive emotions and that they were involved they were

http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2248/is_140_35/ai_70777836/?tag=content;col1

10.
Reference: Dhiman, S. (2011). Four Pursuits of Life: What do we really want?. Interbeing, 5(2), 13-21.

Abstract: The Indian philosophy classifies all human pursuits into four broad categories: kama (pleasure), artha (security), dharma (righteousness), and moksha (freedom). This classification provides an ideal infrastructure for the accomplishment of all human ends, called purusharatha in Sanskrit. The first three pursuits are seen as the “material goals” while the last pursuit—mosksa—is considered as the “spiritual goal” culminating in Self-Knowledge. The ancient seers were very keen to ensure that our pursuit of pleasure and security should be guided by the spirit of righteousness. According to this philosophy, all goals of life must lead to the ultimate goal of spiritual freedom because without accomplishing spiritual freedom, human life is not deemed to be fulfilled. The underlying assumption of this paper is that Self-Knowledge is the supreme path leading directly to the goal of spiritual freedom.

11.
Reference: Steger, M. F., Oishi, S., & Kesebir, S. (2011). Is a life without meaning satisfying? The moderating role of the search for meaning in satisfaction with life judgments. Journal Of Positive Psychology, 6(3), 173-180. doi:10.1080/17439760.2011.569171

Abstract: Results from two studies revealed that the relation between meaning in life and life satisfaction was moderated by the extent to which the rater was searching for meaning in his or her life. In Studies 1a and 1b, the presence of meaning was more strongly related to life satisfaction for those who were actively searching for meaning in life than for those who were not. Study 2 extended the finding to judgments concerning a fictitious target’s life satisfaction based on experimentally manipulated information regarding meaning in life. Thus, the role of meaning in life satisfaction judgments varies across individuals, depending on the level of search for meaning in life. These results suggest that search for meaning behaves like a schema increasing the salience of meaning relevant information, and provides new ways of understanding people’s efforts to establish meaningful lives.

12.
Reference: Steger, M. F., Oishi, S., & Kashdan, T. B. (2009). Meaning in life across the life span: Levels and correlates of meaning in life from emerging adulthood to older adulthood. Journal Of Positive Psychology, 4(1), 43-52. doi:10.1080/17439760802303127
Abstract: Meaning in life is thought to be important to well-being throughout the human life span. We assessed the structure, levels, and correlates of the presence of meaning in life, and the search for meaning, within four life stage groups: emerging adulthood, young adulthood, middle-age adulthood, and older adulthood. Results from a sample of Internet users (N = 8756) demonstrated the structural invariance of the meaning measure used across life stages. Those at later life stages generally reported a greater presence of meaning in their lives, whereas those at earlier life stages reported higher levels of searching for meaning. Correlations revealed that the presence of meaning has similar relations to well-being across life stages, whereas searching for meaning is more strongly associated with well-being deficits at later life stages.

13.
Reference: Kashdan, T. B., & Steger, M. F. (2007). Curiosity and pathways to well-being and meaning in life: Traits, states, and everyday behaviors.Motivation & Emotion, 31(3), 159-173. doi:10.1007/s11031-007-9068-7
Abstract: This study examined curiosity as a mechanism for achieving and maintaining high levels of well-being and meaning in life. Of primary interest was whether people high in trait curiosity derive greater well-being on days when they are more curious. We also tested whether trait and daily curiosity led to greater, sustainable well-being. Predictions were tested using trait measures and 21 daily diary reports from 97 college students. We found that on days when they are more curious, people high in trait curiosity reported more frequent growth-oriented behaviors, and greater presence of meaning, search for meaning, and life satisfaction. Greater trait curiosity and greater curiosity on a given day also predicted greater persistence of meaning in life from one day into the next. People with greater trait curiosity reported more frequent hedonistic events but they were associated with less pleasure compared to the experiences of people with less trait curiosity.



Brassai, L., Piko, B. F., & Steger, M. F. (2010). Meaning in life: Is it a protective factor for adolescents’ psychological health? Int.J.Behav.Med.,18, 44-51.

There is growing evidence that there exists a positive relationship between meaning in life and health among adolescents. Greater meaning in life has been linked with life satisfaction, self-esteem, positive affect, optimism, and happiness, and it can serve as a protective factor during the challenging adolescent years (Brassai, Piko, & Steger, 2010).

In this sample of Romanian adolescents, the results indicate that meaninglessness was associated with poor psychological health, while meaning in life was linked with a decrease in risky behaviors (illicit drug use, binge drinking, unsafe sex, and lack of exercise). These results draw attention to the importance of meaning in life as a resilience factor for adolescents, and provide counselors and helping professionals with further insight into ways to best serve this population (Brassai, et al., 2010).

14. Flow Theory in an Educational Setting:

Abstract of Student Engagement in High School Classrooms from the Perspective of Flow Theory
By: Shernoff, David J.; Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly; Schneider, Barbara. School Psychology Quarterly, v18 n2 p158-76 Sum 2003. (EJ672635)
Investigates how adolescents spent their time in high school and the conditions under which they reported being engaged. Participants experienced increased engagement when the perceived challenge of the task and their own skills were high and in balance, the instruction was relevant, and the learning environment was under their control. Participants were also more engaged in individual and group work.

Relevant statements from Student Engagement in High School Classrooms from the Perspective of Flow Theory:

“…research has found high rates of boredom, alienation, and disconnection with schooling (Larson & Richards, 1991). Studies have characterized high school students, in particular, as bored, staring out classroom windows, counting the seconds for the bell to ring, and pervasively disengaged from the learning process (Goodlad, 1984). According to a recent study on student engagement by Steinberg, Brown, and Dornbusch (1996), 50% of students reported that their classes were boring, and up to one-third reported that they survived their school day by “goofing off” with their friends” (as cited in Shernoff, et. al., 2003, p. 159).

“Flow theory is based on a symbiotic relationship between challenges and skills needed to meet those challenges. The flow experience is believed to occur when one’s skills are neither overmatched nor underutilized to meet a given challenge. This balance of challenge and skill is fragile; when disrupted, apathy (i.e., low challenges, low skills), anxiety (i.e., high challenges, low skills), or relaxation (i.e., low challenges, high skills) are likely to be experienced (Csikszentmihalyi, 1997)” (as cited in Shernoff, et. al., 2003, p. 160).

“The results showed that students spend approximately one-third of their time passively attending to information transmitted to the entire class (i.e., listening to a lecture, watching television or a video). More than half of their instruction time was spent on independent work that was somewhat active, structured, or intellectually challenging for at least some of the time (e.g., individual work, taking an exam, studying or doing homework, or listening and taking notes). Approximately 14% of students’ time in class was spent in more interactive activities, such as class discussions and group activities. The abundance of lectures, taking notes, and watching videos makes for a narrow range of classroom activities that leaves little room for active engagement. An interesting question becomes how students can be expected to reach adult goals of participation, belongingness, and identification with school (Finn, 1989) when active and meaningful participation is not consistently invited in classrooms” (as cited in Shernoff, et. al., 2003, p. 171)

15.

Existential Anxiety in Adolescents: Prevalence, Structure, Association with Psychological Symptoms and Identity Development:
“Existential anxiety is hypothesized to be a core human issue in a great deal of theoretical and philosophical writing. However, little is known about the emergence of these concerns and their relation to emotional functioning in youth. The purpose of this study was to examine the phenomenon of existential anxiety in a sample of adolescents. Data on existential concerns, identity development and psychological symptoms were collected on a sample of 139 youth in grades 9–12. Results indicated that existential anxiety concerns have a theoretically consistent factor structure, are common among adolescents, and are associated with psychological symptoms, as well as identity issues. Results are discussed with regard to the importance of existential concerns in the lives of youth and the need for additional research.” (Berman, Weems, & Stickle, pg. 303)

“Adolescence is an important time to study the development of existential concerns. Models of social and cognitive development suggest that by the high-school years youth are able to comprehend the meaning of life and death and that broader life issues become salient (Warren and Sroufe, 2004; Westenberg et al., 2001). For example, research suggests that even by around 13 years of age fears of death and dying are a prominent concern (Weems and Costa, in press). In addition, psychosocial developmental theory (e.g., Erikson, 1963, 1968) suggests that adolescence is a critical period in the development of life goals and values as well as in the establishment of a sense of direction and purpose in life. While a person develops their sense of identity (who they are, what they believe in, and where they are going), existential concerns should become prominent.” (Berman, Weems, & Stickle, pg. 304)
Berman, S. L., Weems, C. F., & Stickle, T. R. (2006, June). Existential anxiety in adolescents: prevalence, structure, association with psychological symptoms and identity development. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 35(3), 303-310. doi:10.1007/s10964-006-9032-y
http://ehis.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=dc76b8e4-bf28-4928-a6f7-c81e52282eb4%40sessionmgr104&vid=11&hid=124

16. The value of life purpose: Purpose as a mediator of faith and well-being
  1. Byron, K., Miller-Perrin, C. (2009). The value of life purpose: Purpose as a mediator of faith and well-being. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 4(1), 64-70.
  2. ABSTRACT: This study investigated the relationship between faith, life purpose, and well-being, and the potential mediational effects of life purpose between faith and well being. One hundred and three male and female college students completed a life purpose measure designed for the current study, the General Life Purpose Scale, as well as the Perceived Wellness Scale (Adams, T.B. (1995). The conceptualization and measurement of wellness (Doctoral dissertation, University of Texas at Austin, 1995). Dissertation Abstracts International, 56(6–B), 3111) and the Santa Clara Strength of Religious Faith Questionnaire (Plante, T.G., & Boccaccini, M.T. (1997). The Santa Clara Strength of Religious Faith Questionnaire. Pastoral Psychology, 45, 375–387). Results indicated that life purpose significantly mediated the relationship between faith and well-being. The importance of these findings for clinicians and educators is discussed.
  3. HIGHLIGHTS:
    1. Having a purpose helps to cope with stressful life events, to have a healthy mental well-being as well as overall well-being
    2. Many studies link spirituality with life purpose
    3. Life purpose mediated the relationship between faith and well-being
    4. "Encouraging deeper faith and spiritual development in individuals should enhance one's sense of life purpose and contribute to one's overall sense of well-being" (p. 69).
  4. File:


Does a lack of life meaning cause boredom?
Death, Life, Sacrity
Three ways to be happy
Vella-Brodrick, D. A., Park, N., & Peterson, C. (2008). Three ways to be happy: Pleasure, engagement, and meaning-Findings from Australian and US samples. Soc Indic Res, 90, 165-179.

Important Information
-hedonic perspective talks about the importance of pleasurable activities for achieving the good life
-positive emotions, pleasure and positive affect benefit your health and well-being
“The intervention which involved writing down three good things that happened each day (a form of savouring), was effective in producing happiness for at least 6 months (which was the final testing period)” (Vella-Brodrick, D. A., Park, N., & Peterson, C., 2008, p. 166).
-another factor in happiness was finding a meaning in life which also was related to positive mental health
-the last factor was flow which means being completely immersed in a specific activity, concentration, involvement, and enjoyment
-state of well-being involves eudaimonic qualities like personal growth, meaning and a higher purpose
-individuals need these three orientations 1) pleasure 2) engagement 3) meaning

Fahlman, S. A., Mercer, K. B., Gaskovski, P., Eastwood, A. E., & Eastwood, J. D. (2009). Does a lack of life meaning cause boredom? Results from psychometric, longitudinal, and experimental analyses. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 28 (3), 307-340.

Important Information
-boredom involves dissatisfaction and disengagement in one’s environment or current activity
- “Studies have shown that boredom is correlated with various types of negative affect, including depression, anxiety, apathy, hopelessness, and lacking a sense of meaning or purpose in life” (Fahlman, S. A., Mercer, K. B., Gaskovski, P., Eastwood, A. E., & Eastwood, J. D., 2009, p. 308).
- “Although divers in their thinking, many existential theorists posit that lacking a sense of life meaning is at the forefront of human suffering, and that experiences of boredom and negative affect are central components of this lack of purpose or meaning” (p. 309)
-if an individual can adopt a meaningful life project than boredom may be overcome
-boredom and life meaning share a closer relationship with each other than they do with depression or anxiety

King, L. A., Hicks, J. A, & Abdelkhalik, J. (2009). Death, life, scarcity, and value: An alternative perspective on the meaning of death. Journal of Psychological Science, 20 (12), 1459-1462.

Important Information
-experience of death can bring a renewed appreciation to life’s value
- “As such, death represents the scarcity of life and should, therefore, share a strong relationship with life’s value” (King, L. A., Hicks, J. A, & Abdelkhalik, J., 2009, p. 1459).
-promoting the value of life also makes the notion of death more accessible
-when death is salient, life is better
-rather than being connected with meaninglessness, the reality of death may promote meaning in your life

Schiffrin, H., & Nelson, S. S. (2010). Stressed and Happy? Investigating the Relationship Between Happiness and Perceived Stress. Journal Of Happiness Studies, 11(1), 33-39

-differing views on stress and happiness being related
-this article found an inverse relationship


III. ADDITIONAL RESOURCES (Video clips, podcasts, lectures, etc.)


  1. Provide link to file or embed on wiki and annotations/summaries of findings/relevance
    1. Michael Norton: How to buy happiness
      • Norton, M. (2011, November). How to buy happiness. [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/en/michael_norton_how_to_buy_happiness.html
      • You can buy happiness if you spend it differently.
      • Experiment making ppl spend money on others
      • People who spend money on others felt happier.
      • Amount didn't matter--results consistent w/ different amounts
      • Repeated w/ Uganda
      • Specific way you spend isn't important--small things as important as big ones
      • Almost every country indicates that giving money to charity makes you happier
      • Teams become more cohesive when you spend money on your team members rather than on yourself

-The Persuit of Happiness is an inspirational Book and Movie, That Reviewd the life of Chris Gardner and his struggles from Homelessness to working on Wall street.
- http://bestsellers.about.com/od/memoirs/gr/pursuit_happy.htm


The 7 Habits of Highly Effective Teens by Sean Covey (1998, p. 5):
Habit 1: Be Proactive - Take responsibility for your life
Habit 2: Begin with the end in mind - define your mission and goals in life
Habit 3: Put first things first - Prioritize, and do the most important things first
Habit 4: Think Win-Win - have an "everyone can win" attitude
Habit 5: Seek first to understand, then be understood - listen to people sincerely
Habit 6: Synergize - work together to achieve more
Habit 7: Sharpen the saw - renew yourself regularly

Covey, S. (1998). The 7 Habits of Highly Effective Teens. New York, NY: Fireside.

The 7 Habits of Highly Effective Teens Personal Workbook

This workbook goes along with the book that is stated above. It has a lot of different exercises that a teenager could work on and almost keep as a diary. I used this book and workbook while teaching my solution-focused class at Upward Bound over the summer. The students were able to easily grasp the material as I added in a bunch of different theorists. No doubt that this would be a great asset to the book!

Covey, S. (2004). The 7 Habits of Highly Effective Teens Personal Workbook. New York, NY: Fireside.

What this sibling is going through is completely normal. Identity versus Role Confusion, which provides a critical time for creating a personal sense of self through sorting out identity, goals, and the meaning of life. Lots of recent research supports the notion that happiness and contentment is divided into 3 components- the pursuit of pleasure, meaning, and engagement.

Clark Prof. Jeffrey Arnett speaks about Emerging Adulthood


Arnett, J. (2012). Clark prof. jeffrey arnett speaks about emerging adulthood [Web]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n9Gzp0nIR9E

Summary: Jeffrey Arnett is a professor at Clark University. He is considered to be an expert on the topic of emerging adulthood. He wrote the article on emerging adulthood that we read in class. This is a video of one of Arnett’s lectures where he discusses the key topics in emerging adulthood.
Emerging Adulthood

Action for Happiness: Ten Keys to Happier Living

10 keys to happier living . (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.actionforhappiness.org/10-keys

Summary: This article gives 10 key tips to living a happier life.

  1. Giving: Caring about others is key to our happiness. It gives us stronger connections between us and others.

  2. Relating: Relationships are important to happiness. People with strong relationships tend to live longer, more meaningful lives. They also increase our feelings of self-worth.

  3. Exercising: Connects our body and mind. Being active makes us happier.

  4. Appreciating: We need to learn to be more mindful in our work and relationships. This helps us get in tune with our feelings and helps us let go of past events.

  5. Trying Out: Learning new things helps us to stay engaged and curious. Trying new things out also gives us a sense of accomplishment.

  6. Direction: Try and feel good about the future. We need goals to motivate us and excite us.

  7. Resilience: How we respond to stress is important in our happiness. We cannot choose what happens to us but we can choose our attitudes about it.

  8. Emotion: Try and have positive emotions such as joy, inspiration, and pride. These feelings will help us focus on the good aspects of situations.

  9. Acceptance: Dwelling on our flaws does us no good and makes it harder for us to be happier. Learning to accept ourselves increases our enjoyment of life.

  10. Meaning: People who have purpose and meaning are happier. They also experience less stress, depression and anxiety.

10 Tips for Happiness


Excerpts from The Purpose Driven Life by Rick Warren (2002, pp. 27-33)

· “Everyone’s life is driven by something.”

· “Many people are driven by guilt. They spend their entire lives running from regrets and hiding from their shame. They allow their past to control their future. They often unconsciously punish themselves by sabotaging their own success.”

· “Many people are driven by resentment and anger. Instead of releasing their pain through forgiveness they rehearse it over and over in their minds. Resentment always hurts you more than it does the person you resent. While your offender has probably forgotten the offense and gone on with life, you continue to stew in your pain, perpetuating the past.”

· “Many people are driven by fear. Regardless of the cause, fear-driven people often miss great opportunities because they’re afraid to venture out. Instead they play it safe, avoiding risks and trying to maintain the status quo.”

· “Many people are driven by materialism. This drive to always want more is based on the misconceptions that having more will make me more happy, more important, and more secure, but all three ideas are untrue. Possessions only provide temporary happiness. Because things do not change, we eventually become bored with them and then want newer, bigger, better versions. Self-worth and net worth are not the same. Your value is not determined by your valuables…”

· “Many people are driven by the need for approval. They allow the expectations of parents or spouses or children or teachers or friends to control their lives. Being controlled by the opinions of others is a guaranteed way to miss…purposes for your life.”

· “Knowing your purpose gives meaning to your life.”

· “Knowing your purpose simplifies your life. It defines what you do and what you don’t do. Your purpose becomes the standard you use to evaluate which activities are essential and which aren’t.”

· “Knowing your purpose motivates your life. Purpose always produces passion. Nothing energizes like a clear purpose.”

Warren, R. (2002). The purpose driven life: What on earth am I here for? Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan.



Happiness is not only living well but living well in the life that is good for one to live.

3 major conceptions of happiness historically.

1. Hedonism: happiness is a result of pleasure

2. Eudaimonia: people are happiest when they give meaning to their lives by developing their potentials and using them for the greater good

3. Engagement: the psychological state that accompanies highly involving activities

Happiness levels can altered by intentional activity. Could be behavioral, such as exercising or an act of kindness. Also it could be cognitive, such as pausing to count one's blessings. Another activity can be volitional, such as devoting effort to a meaningful cause. The most effective may be a combination of all 3.


McMahan, I. (2009). Adolescence. New YorkNew York: Pearson.

Retrieved May 6, 2012 from the Psych 525 Final wiki: http://psyc525final.wikispaces.com/Question+3


NPR Staff (May 2, 2012). The 10 Things You Won't Hear At Commencement. National Public Radio. Retrieved from http://www.npr.org/2012/05/02/151867383/the-ten-things-you-wont-hear-at-commencement

This article identifies one major element from the research that contributes towards happiness. Charles Wheelan explains in this NPR article that human relationships are vitally important in creating happiness in individuals.


Death & Existential Psychotherapy
Irvin D. Yalom, M.D., is professor emeritus of psychiatry at Stanford University. He continues his clinical practice and lectures widely in the United States. Existential therapy has been practiced and continues to be practiced in many forms and situations throughout the world.Organized around what Yalom identifies as the four "ultimate concerns of life"—death, freedom, existential isolation, and meaninglessness—the book takes up the meaning of each existential concern and the type of conflict that springs from our confrontation with each. He shows how these concerns are manifested in personality and psychopathology, and how treatment can be helped by our knowledge of them.

Pangeaprogressblog. (2010, June 10). Dr. Yalom (I) death & existential psychotherapy [Video file]. Retrieved from Youtube database.

http://youtu.be/_-1dfH_kVZA

The Dream Giver
  1. Wilkinson, B. (2003). The dream giver: Following your God-given destiny. Colorado Springs, CO: Multnomah Books.
  2. Meet a man named Ordinary who was a Nobody and lived in the land of Familiar, and who had a Big Dream. He sought out to pursue his Big Dream. The Dream Giver gave Ordinary a Big Dream and convinced him to leave his Comfort Zone. Ordinary begins to pursue his Big Dream, overcoming Border Bullies, making his way through the wasteland, battling the fierce Giants in the Land. What at first seems to be a road full of obstacles is actually a series of opportunities to help Ordinary along towards his destiny.
    1. The Big Dream is what Ordinary does best
    2. There are sacrifices and big changes to pursue his Big Dream
    3. Take courage
    4. Go beyond the wall of fear
    5. There will be delays that are learning opportunities
    6. Find support
    7. Draw from His power
Finding your passion
  1. Zenhabits (2009). The short but powerful guide to finding your passion.
    1. What are you good at?
    2. What excites you?
    3. What do you read about?
    4. What have you secretly dreamed of?
    5. Learn, ask, take notes.
    6. Experiment, try.
    7. Narrow things down.
    8. Banish your fears.
    9. Find the time.
    10. How to make a living doing it.
  2. Retrieved from: Finding your passion

This article could be helpful with some ideas to help get your " sbilings" mind on the right track. I found the posting interesting.

Teenagers and Boredom:

Causes of boredom Teens often feel like they are the victim of mood swings. The teen years are times when young people are struggling to find their identity, self-image, establishing themselves as no longer a child in their family and friendship groups and trying to cope with the hormonal changes of puberty all at the same time! • Maybe schoolwork may seem too easy or too hard. • Maybe friendships may change or be lost. • Maybe your lifestyle becomes less active, e.g. you may have given up sport or spend more time sitting around. • Maybe you find it difficult to talk about your fears and feelings. • Maybe you feel tired much of the time. • Maybe you are sick of the way things are at home. • Maybe you are depressed.
What you can do If you are the victim of boredom for much of the time then you need to recognise that and look for ways to take control of your life • Recognise that you are in charge of your feelings not the other way round. • Recognise that you are not alone. Other people feel like this so look for someone to talk with. Someone you can trust either at home, in your peer group, a school counsellor or teacher, sports coach or any adult whom you can trust to listen and respect your confidence. • Exercise! Walking, running, biking, skateboarding, playing or practicing sports are all good ways to release endorphins into the brain and lift your mood. And while you are exercising you haven't got time to be bored. You don't have to be an athlete to get the benefits from physical exercise. You will look and feel healthier, sleep better and be more relaxed even if you are the world's most uncoordinated mover! • Get enough sleep by keeping regular hours so that your body is ready to sleep when you get to bed. • Get involved! Joining with others, having hobbies, helping people, being part of a group, need not be expensive but keeps you busy and living your life rather than existing on a daily basis. • Cry. It's ok for young people to cry when they are feeling sad, lonely, bored, afraid of the future, even if you are a male! Letting out your feelings is like washing away all the negative stuff that makes you feel bored and gives you a feeling of peace. • Laugh. Laughing is great for making you feel positive so look for the humour in life. Laugh at yourself and the way you are letting boredom take over your life. Then get on with living your own life.
Take on a challenge Here are some ideas that young people have come up with to make life more interesting. • Check the topic Employment for some ideas on volunteer work, getting grants, and online youth media sites. • Draw, paint or write (poems or stories) for pleasure or as a form of expression. You can learn how to do it online. Search 'learn to draw'. • Visit or phone a friend or relative. Hang out. • Make something - use wood, material, beads, or paints… • Join a club, group or get involved in a community project. Check out our topic Exercise. • Do some volunteer work - there are lots of things to get involved in. Ask at your local council or community centre. Get hooked on fishing, rock-climbing, mountain biking, skating, surfing… • Read a book or write your own! There are loads of sites that can help you learn to write, and even places to send stuff to and get people to read it. • Start a blog. It's like an online diary. • Take up belly dancing, aerobics, yoga or meditation. • Cook an exotic meal, a cake or a huge batch of biscuits. If you can, invite your friends over or enjoy it with your family. Make it special. • Go camping - take a can of baked beans and a tent and have a great time! • Investigate aromatherapy or the universe or start a collection. • Go for a hike at the beach or a national park nearby. • Check out the museum, art gallery, library or any exhibitions on at the moment. • What is important is you find things that are challenging, interesting and value you. Go for it! Take charge. This is your life, don't let boredom take over!
http://www.parentinghub.co.za/page/teens/385746-Teenagers-and-Boredom

http://www.meaningsoflife.com/

This site works through different themes in life and the pursuit of meaning.

For all sections, please be sure to include relevant and correctly formatted citations.






SANDBOX (Please Review These Resources and Consider Inclusion Above)






1. Steinberg, L. (2008). A social neuroscience perspective on adolescent risk-taking. Developmental Review, 78 - 106.
https://millersville.desire2learn.com/d2l/lms/content/viewer/main_frame.d2l?ou=313809&tId=3635887

CHAPTER
Chapter 1: A Brief Discussion on Happiness
Happiness is something that is not easy to attain especially at the young age of 17. It is a time of transition when a person is not only trying to make the right choices for themselves, but is also attempting to please the adults around them. However, if one wants to make changes in his/her life, the life itself must first be explored. It is at this point that one must begin to make choices that will be of benefit. Corey and Corey (2010) state that “Making choices for yourself and being in control of your life is important to your level of happiness”, but go on to clarify that “you cannot ignore the reality that you are a social being and that many of your decisions will be influenced by your relationships with significant people in your life” (p. 4). This shows that while making choices for oneself is of great value and importance, one must still be willing to face the opinions of those around him/her and stand up to those opinions if the person believes he/she is doing what is right.

Chapter 3: Provisional Adulthood: "... is an initial attempt to make peace for ourselves in a new world and new generation." (Corey and Corey, 2010, pg 87) This older sibling will need to analyze the perivouis conflicts before finding meaning, pleasure, and the ability to engage in activities with othe rindividuals
Chapter 10-The place of recreation in your life. Although more focused on older adult, I still think that the quote, until we leearn how to be leisurely on a regular basis, it is good to schedule times to enjoy leisure" (Corey and Corey, 2010, pg 306) This couldbe true of this young child, she may be bored, because her leisure acitvities ar enot somethings that sge is designed to do for enjoyment, but perhaps forced to complete.

Chapter 13 – Meaning and Values
Viktor Frankl’s study of meaning in life – logotherapy (therapy through meaning, healing through meaning). What distinguishes us as humans is our search for purpose. The striving to find meaning in our lives is a primary motivational force. We have many opportunities to make choices, and the decisions we make or fail to make shape the meaning of our lives. (Corey & Corey, 2010, p. 377)


---Identity versus Role confusion---“critical time for forming personal identity. Major conflicts relate to self identity, life goals, and life’s meanings” (Corey & Corey, 2010, p. 45). So what she is feeling is normal. Autonomy & Individuation---separating from our family system and establishing our own identity based on our experiences (Corey & Corey, 2010, p. 62).
---"Work can be a away for you to be productive and to find enjoyment in daily life" (Corey & Corey, 2010, p. 300)
---"Leisure can give us a respite from the responsibilities of work, helps relieve work stress, and refocuses our work perspective (Peterson & Gonzalez, 2005, as cited in Corey & Corey, 2010, p. 306).


Corey & Corey (2010) state that a philosophy of life is made up of the fundamental beliefs, attitudes, and values that govern a person’s behavior” (pg 380)

In Corey & Corey (2010, pg. 380-381) Don Miguel Ruiz (2000) presents an approach in avoiding self-judgment and self-criticism in order to help improve your life in every way and get you where you want to be. The following are:
1. Be impeccable with your words.
2. Don’t take anything personally
3. Don’t make assumptions
4. Always do your best

Corey and Corey (2010) discuss work and recreation and provide tips in creating a more meaningful life. They first state that “the balance we find between work and recreation can contribute to our personal vitality or to a stressful experience that ultimately results in burnout.” They discuss the importance of recreation stating that it involves creating new interests. In addition they bring up suggestions of what you can do when looking for a job or career. Corey and Corey (2010, pg. 287) discuss a three step process when career planning. They include: to discover your area of interest, identify occupations in your interest area, and determine which occupation correspond to your ability.

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES
---Flow when these certain conditions are met:
1. clear goals
2. immediate feedback
3. focused attention
4. tasks that challenge (without frustrating) one's skills (Engagement & Flow, 2011)

“If a task is not challenging enough, boredom sets in, while too great a challenge results in anxiety, and both cases result in task, and thus learning, avoidance. As one's skills increase, then the challenge must also increase for one to remain in a state of flow” (Engagement & Flow, 2011).
Nelson, C. (2011). Engagement and Flow. Retrieved on April 15, 2011, from http://secondlanguagewriting.com/explorations/Archives/2007/January/EngagementandFlow.html


This article is about helping teen find meaning in their life. Important to remind younger sibling that these feelings are common at this age.
http://www.teensselfhelp.com/Meaning.html

Interesting article on talking about how "Too much money, boredom and stress can lead to substance abuse". Parents and other important people need to stay involved in a teen's life especially when they are going through tough times. There is a lot of pressure from peers to ease pain with drugs and alcohol (hedonism). Keep lines of communication open.
http://www.usatoday.com/educate/ondcp/lessons/Activity2.pdf

This article is called "Why Teens addict: The elusive search for happiness". It talks about the importance of meditation and contemplation in our busy lives and how these practices could benefit teenagers.
http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/youth-and-consequences/201001/why-teens-addict-the-elusive-search-happiness


Excerpts from The Purpose Driven Life by Rick Warren (2002, pp. 27-33)

· “Everyone’s life is driven by something.”
· “Many people are driven by guilt. They spend their entire lives running from regrets and hiding from their shame. They allow their past to control their future. They often unconsciously punish themselves by sabotaging their own success.”
· “Many people are driven by resentment and anger. Instead of releasing their pain through forgiveness they rehearse it over and over in their minds. Resentment always hurts you more than it does the person you resent. While your offender has probably forgotten the offense and gone on with life, you continue to stew in your pain, perpetuating the past.”
· “Many people are driven by fear. Regardless of the cause, fear-driven people often miss great opportunities because they’re afraid to venture out. Instead they play it safe, avoiding risks and trying to maintain the status quo.”
· “Many people are driven by materialism. This drive to always want more is based on the misconceptions that having more will make me more happy, more important, and more secure, but all three ideas are untrue. Possessions only provide temporary happiness. Because things do not change, we eventually become bored with them and then want newer, bigger, better versions. Self-worth and net worth are not the same. Your value is not determined by your valuables…”
· “Many people are driven by the need for approval. They allow the expectations of parents or spouses or children or teachers or friends to control their lives. Being controlled by the opinions of others is a guaranteed way to miss…purposes for your life.”
· “Knowing your purpose gives meaning to your life.”
· “Knowing your purpose simplifies your life. It defines what you do and what you don’t do. Your purpose becomes the standard you use to evaluate which activities are essential and which aren’t.”
· “Knowing your purpose motivates your life. Purpose always produces passion. Nothing energizes like a clear purpose.”

Warren, R. (2002). The purpose driven life: What on earth am I here for? Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan.

PURSUIT OF PLEASURE
-Corey/Corey- “Making choices for yourself and being in control of your life is important to your level of happiness”
-Corey/Corey- Emerging adulthood is a time of life when many different directions remain possible,
1. Accepting responsibility for self
2. Making independent decisions
3. Becoming financially independent

MEANING
--Corey/Corey- Values---“to make choices, we must examine the sources of our values and the extent to which they are enhancing our life”
---Corey/Corey- Questions to ask yourself---Where did I get my values? Is there a higher power or a God? What does religion (spirituality) mean to me? What kind of future do I want? What can I do to help create this kind of future?
-Corey & Corey (2010) state that a philosophy of life is made up of the fundamental beliefs, attitudes, and values that govern a person’s behavior” (pg 380)

ENGAGEMENT
Shernoff (2003). Investigates how adolescents spent their time in high school and the conditions under which they reported being engaged. Participants experienced increased engagement when the perceived challenge of the task and their own skills were high and in balance, the instruction was relevant, and the learning environment was under their control. Participants were also more engaged in individual and group work.

“Flow theory is based on a symbiotic relationship between challenges and skills needed to meet those challenges. The flow experience is believed to occur when one’s skills are neither overmatched nor underutilized to meet a given challenge. This balance of challenge and skill is fragile; when disrupted, apathy (i.e., low challenges, low skills), anxiety (i.e., high challenges, low skills), or relaxation (i.e., low challenges, high skills) are likely to be experienced (Csikszentmihalyi, 1997)” (as cited in Shernoff, et. al., 2003, p. 160).

“The results showed that students spend approximately one-third of their time passively attending to information transmitted to the entire class (i.e., listening to a lecture, watching television or a video). More than half of their instruction time was spent on independent work that was somewhat active, structured, or intellectually challenging for at least some of the time (e.g., individual work, taking an exam, studying or doing homework, or listening and taking notes). Approximately 14% of students’ time in class was spent in more interactive activities, such as class discussions and group activities. The abundance of lectures, taking notes, and watching videos makes for a narrow range of classroom activities that leaves little room for active engagement. An interesting question becomes how students can be expected to reach adult goals of participation, belongingness, and identification with school (Finn, 1989) when active and meaningful participation is not consistently invited in classrooms” (as cited in Shernoff, et. al., 2003, p. 171)



"Positive Psychology: a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that some attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychology is the scientific study of what goes right in life. Christened less than a decade ago by Seligman and Csikszentmihalyi (2000), positive psychology was intended as a deliberate correction to the decades-long focus by psychology and much of the social sciences on problems. Problems clearly demand attention, but knowing how to prevent or undo what goes wrong in life is not enough to set things right. Positive psychology does not replace business-as-usual psychology but instead complements and extends it...Positive youth development aims
at understanding, educating, and engaging children in productive activities."
Peterson, C. (2009). Positive Psychology. Reclaiming Children and Youth, 18(2), 3-7. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

Quote about ATTITUDE: The longer I love, the more I realize the impact of attitude on life. Attitude, to me, is more important than facts. It is more important than the past, than education, than money, than circumstances, than failures, than successes, than what other people think or say or do. It is more important than appearance, giftedness or skill. It will make or break a company...a church...a home. The remarkable thing is we have a choice every day regarding the attitude we will embrace for that day. We cannot change our past...we cannot change the fact that people will act in a certain way. We cannot change the inevitable. The only thing we can do is play on the one string we have and that is our attitude...I am convinced that life is 10% what happens to me and 90% how I react to it. And so it is with you...we are in charge of our attitudes." - Charles Swindoll

From Corey & Corey (2010):

-“Society provides us with many distractions that are often hard to resist. It seems that solitude is neither valued nor encouraged. The message that it is better to be constantly busy than inactive often begins during early childhood. An abundance of activities are planned for children, which allows for little quiet time. Counselors see children who suffer from stress and an already overstuffed life. These children learn early on to become impatient with lack of stimulation, and they are quick to point out that they are bored with the absence of activity.” (p. 317)

Corey and Corey (2010, p. 381) state that many adolescents struggle with these questions. They can thus be used to help you answer some of the questions that your sibling may be facing:
  • Are the values I've believed in all these years the valies I want to continue to live by?
  • Where did I get my values? Are they still valid for me/ Are there additional sources from which I can derive new values?
  • Is there a higher power or a God? What is my perception of a God? What is the nature of the hereafter? What does religion (orspirituality) mean to me?
  • What do I base my ethical and moral decisions on? Peer group standards? Parental standards? The normative values of my society? My culture? My religion? My spirituality?
  • What explains the inhumanity I see in the world?
  • What kind of future do I want? What can I do to help create this kind of future?

Corey & Corey (2010) also discuss the concept that having basic spiritual values help give individuals purpose and direction in one's life:

"The Dalai Lama (2001) teaches that religious beliefs are but one level of spirituality, and he talks about basic spiritual values, which include qualities of goodness, kindness, love, compassion, tolerance, forgiveness, human warmth, and caring. All religions have the same basic message in that they all advocate these basic human values. Love, compassion, and forgiveness are not luxuries; rather, they are essential values for our survival. Compassion, an essential part of one's spiritual development, involves caring about another's suffering and doing something about it. Whether we are believers or nonbelievers, this kind of spirituality is essential. True spirituality results in making people calmer, happier, and more peaceful, and it is a mental attitude that can be practiced at any time" (p. 384).

Dalai Lama. (2001). An open heart: Practicing compassion in everyday life. Boston: Little Brown.

Here is an interesting article that discusses engagement and flow in terms of classroom engagement: http://secondlanguagewriting.com/explorations/Archives/2007/January/EngagementandFlow.html
The diagram on here helped me better understand the concept and how it is related to boredom.
I found this quote from the article to be relevant:
“Flow activities lead to growth and discovery. One cannot enjoy doing the same thing at the same level for long. We grow either bored or frustrated; and then the desire to enjoy ourselves again pushes us to stretch our skills, or to discover new opportunities for using them.” (although not cited in the article, I believe this quote is from Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience by Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi)




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"Emerging adulthood is proposed as a new conception of development for the period from the late teens through the twenties, with a focus on ages 18-25."
Arnett, J.J. (2000). Emerging adulthood: A theory of development from the late teens through the twenties. American Psychologist, 55(5), 469-480.


“Existential psychology is the branch of psychology that deals with each human being’s relationship to the most essential life dilemmas, the so-called big questions of life. Existential psychology also aims to capture the spirit and feeling of life itself rather than subsuming life under a system of logical and systematic categories” (Jacobsen, 2007, p. 288).
This could be a good piece of advice to give your sibling:
“Human beings are compelled to live a life in which they reflect upon their own life. All human beings experience moments when they have to choose between alternate courses of action. We all have thoughts about when we are going to die, or how we can achieve a valuable goal. We also think about falling ill, getting older, being alone, having enemies and loved ones and about many other aspects of our lives.
As human beings we are all doomed to reflect upon our lives, but at the same time this requirement is our great chance and opportunity to develop ourselves and our lives…” (Jacobsen, 2007, p. 288).
Jacobsen, B. (2007). Authenticity and Our Basic Existential Dilemmas. Existential Analysis: Journal of the Society for Existential Analysis, 18(2), 288-296. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.



Hedonic Enjoyment & Eudaimonia
This article studied two types of activities: (1) intrinsically motivated activities (where both hedonic enjoyment and eudaimonia are present), and (2) hedonically enjoyed activities (where only hedonic enjoyment was present). Intrinsically motivated activities exhibited higher measurements in regard to: the balance of challenges and skills, values, effort, importance, interest, self-realization, and flow experiences. The two main findings associated with this article (which also relate to the question for our final) are as follows:
  1. “When an activity was rated as high on eudaimonia, its probability of receiving similarly high ratings on hedonic enjoyment was extremely high. However, when an activity was rated high on hedonic enjoyment, the probability of receiving comparably high ratings on eudaimonia was substantially lower” (p. 69)
  2. “When past experiences indicate that particular types of activities are enjoyed, whether in terms of hedonic enjoyment alone or in combination with eudaimonia, those activities are likely to be enacted in the future in anticipation of continued enjoyment. Such activities can be said to be intrinsically motivate. However, when activities are required, or when a person feels otherwise constrained to engage in them because of extrinsic considerations, much of that pleasure may be undermined” (p. 72)

Waterman, A., Schwartz, S., & Conti, R. (2008). The implications of two conceptions of happiness (hedonic enjoyment and eudaimonia) for the understanding of intrinsic motivation. Journal of Happiness Studies, 9(1), 41-79.






Normative theory and psychological research:
Hedonism, eudaimonism and why it matters1 Valerie Tiberius and Alicia Hall

http://www.tc.umn.edu/~tiberius/Normative%20Theory%20and%20Psychological%20Research%20final.pdf

Abstract This paper is a contribution to the debate about eudaimonism started by Kashdan, Biswas-Diener, King, and Waterman in a previous issue of The Journal of Positive Psychology. We point out that one thing that is missing from this debate is an understanding of the problems with subjective theories of well-being that motivate a turn to objective theories. A better understanding of the rationale for objective theories helps us to see what is needed from a theory of well-being. We then argue that a suitably modified subjective theory can provide what is needed and that this is the theory that ought to be favored by psychologists.



Satisfaction and HappinessSatisfaction and Happiness
quick view
quick view

Alex C. Michalos
Social Indicators Research, Vol. 8, No. 4 (Dec., 1980), pp. 385-422

http://www.jstor.org/stable/27507532?&Search=yes&searchText=happiness&searchText=elements&list=hide&searchUri=%2Faction%2FdoBasicSearch%3FQuery%3Delements%2Bof%2Bhappiness%26gw%3Djtx%26acc%3Don%26prq%3DHedonism%2Beudaimonism%26Search%3DSearch%26hp%3D25%26wc%3Don&prevSearch=&item=7&ttl=42030&returnArticleService=showFullText

Meaning of life
Developmental theorists such as Arnett and Erickson have found that exploration as the overriding feature for those in the emerging adulthood stage to establish their careers, identities, and social roles as noted by Steger, Oishi, and Kashdan (2009). They go on to note that it is common for those in the emerging adulthood stage to be searching for the meaning of life.
Steger M.F., Oishi S., & Kashdan T. B. (2009). Meaning in Life Across the Life Span: Levels and correlates of meaning in life from emerging adulthood to older adulthood. The Journal of Positive Psychology. 4(1), 43-52.


Hedonism and Happiness
Veenhoven, R. (2003). Hedonism and Happiness. Journal of Happiness Studies, 4(4), 437-457. doi:10.1023/B:JOHS.0000005719.56211.fd

Abstract: Hedonism is a way of life, characterised by openness to pleasurable experience. There are many qualms about hedonism. It is rejected on moral grounds and said to be detrimental to long-term happiness. Several mechanisms for this 'paradox of hedonism' have been suggested and telling examples of pleasure seekers ending up in despair have been given. But is that the rule? If so, how much pleasure is too much? The relation between hedonism and happiness has been studied at two levels: that of the nation and the individual. At the national level average happiness is correlated with moral acceptance of pleasure and with active leisure. At the individual level it is similarly linked with hedonistic attitudes and also correlated with hedonistic behaviours such as frequent sex and use of stimulants. In most cases the pattern is linearly positive. The relation between happiness and consumption of stimulants follows an inverted U-curve, spoilsports and guzzlers are less happy than modest consumers. Yet, these data cannot settle the issue, since the observed relations may be spurious or due to the effects of happiness on hedonism rather than the reverse. A solution is to assess the effect of hedonistic living on the number of years lived happily.

Summary: Hedonism is a term that is viewed in a negative light sometimes because people look at seeking pleasure in life as something that involves frequent sex and addiction to substances. However, hedonism is essentially the fact that someone is committed to doing what they find to be pleasurable. It does not have to be related to sex or substances. Instead, it is key that a person finds something that they love and make it a part of their regular lives.

"True spirituality results in making people calmer, happier, and more peaceful, and it is a mental attitude that can be practiced at any time. " (Corey & Corey, 2010, p. 384)
"Recreations is derived from "re-create", awhich means to restore, to refresh, to put new life into, and to create anew." (Corey& Corey, 2010, p.282))
Balance in life is important for happiness.
Adler - social interest - at least as concerned with the welfare of others as we are with our own.
"To fully develop as a person and enjoy a meaningful existence, we need to care for others and have others care for us." (Corey & Corey, 2010, p. 172)

"A philosophy of life is not something we arrive at once and for all during our adolescent years. Developing our own philosophy of life continues as long as we live." ( Corey & Corey, 2010, p. 381)


Quotes from Corey & Corey (2010) on the meaning of life (pp.379-380):
-"It's my belief that the meaning of life changes from day to day, second to second. We're here to learn that we can create a world and that we have a choice in what we create, and that our world, if we choose, can be a heaven or hell." (Thomas E. O'Connor, AIDS activist and lecturer, p. 20).
-"Life is a gift, and if we accept it, we must contribute in return..." (Armand Hammer, industrialist, physician, and self-made diplomat, p. 29)
-"While we exist as human beings, we are like tourists on holiday. If we play havoc and cause disturbance, our visit is meaningless. If during our short stay - 100 years at most - we live peacefully, help others and, at the very least, refrain from harming or upsetting them, our visit is worthwhile" (Dalai Lama)

Other values to live by:
-Have a positive and significant impact on the people in your life
-Be willing to take risks and make mistakes
-Respect and care for others
-Be independent and have the courage to be different from others if you want to be
-Be proud of yourself, yet humble
-Respect the differences in others
-Develop a flexible view of the world and be willing to modify your perspective based on new experiences
(Corey & Corey, 2010, pp. 386-387)
well-being is prominently pursued and found in meaning
and feelings confined to the home environment or to a close circle of friends.
Retrieved from: http://zenhabits.net/the-short-but-powerful-guide-to-finding-your-passion/

Mark Twain's Top Nine Tips for Living a Kick-Ass Life


Edberg, Hendrik. (2008). Mark Twain's Top Nine Tips for Living a Kick-Ass Life. Retrieved from http://www.positivityblog.com/index.php/2008/05/16/mark-twains-top-9-tips-for-living-a-kick-ass-life/

Summary: I am personally a huge fan of Mark Twain and thought that this article would be extremely relevant. It also has many great useful Twain quotes throughout.
  1. Approve of yourself
  2. Your limitations may just be in your mind
  3. Lighten up and have some fun
  4. Let go of anger
  5. Release yourself from entitlement
  6. If you're taking a different path, be prepared for reactions
  7. Keep your focus steadily on what you want
  8. Don't focus so much on making yourself feel good
  9. Do what you want to do